BIO 104 Natural Selection and Adaptation
BIO 104 Natural Selection and Adaptation BIO 104
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Biology 104 – Natural Selection and Adaptation Chapter 14 – Natural Selection and Adaptation Lecture Evolution is the genetic change in populations Alleles are versions of genes that gives us the diversity from one person to another Genetic change is the frequency in the change of alleles MRSA – Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (type of a staph infection) New alleles primarily arise from mutations that occur in DNA Replication and Environmental influences and Natural Selection that has to deal with the environment the population is in Bacterial Conjugation – passing DNA and other information of two bacteria through a tube Reproductive Fitness is basically asking the question “do you survive to reproduce?” – if yes, you are highly fit; if no, you are not fit Survival of the Fittest implies strength, that you have to fight for the ability to move on in life Mutations allow for the introduction of new alleles in populations Natural Selection depends on the selection of some individuals to reproduce over others due to some sort of environmental pressure / favorable adaptations persist in a population -Brought about by Darwin, but he was not the only one Darwin had a collection of ideas – he was taking information from other scientists / researchers / ideas and was combining them all Wallace was looking at similar information as Darwin / he took a trip to the Amazon and was the first to begin to question the geography of places / suffered from malaria, and studied the relationship of famine and disease Book There is more bacteria on your body than cells in your body Helpful bacteria on your skin produce acids that make your skin inhospitable to other, less helpful bacteria, generally protecting you from invaders People with a weakened immune system are at risk for more severe staph infections, especially if staph finds a way to enter the bloodstream Antibiotics are chemicals that either kill bacteria or slow their growth by interfering with the function of essential bacterial cell structures Like all organisms, bacteria can acquire mutations when their DNA replicates during reproduction creating new alleles in the bacterial populations, including ones that ma confer antibiotic resistance Binary fusion is a type of asexual reproduction in which one parental cell divides into two -a single parental cell simply replicates its single chromosome, grows in size, and then splits into two daughter cells, each with a copy of the parental DNA Bacteria can acquire new alleles (or genes) through a mechanism called gene transfer – pieces of DNA pass from one type of bacteria to another A population is a group of organisms of the same species living together in the same geographic area Evolution is a change in allele frequencies in a population over time -NOT INDIVIDUALS Fitness is the relative ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in a particular environment Natural Selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals in response to environmental pressure that leads to change in allele frequencies in a population over time Adaptation is the process by which populations become better suited to their environment as a result of natural selection Directional selection is a type of natural selection in which organisms with phenotypes at one end of a spectrum are favored by the environment Stabilizing selection is a type of natural selection in which organisms near the middle of the phenotypic range of variation are favored by the environment Diversifying selection is a type of natural selection in which organisms with phenotypes at both extremes of the phenotypic range are favored by the environment References / Works Cited Shuster, Michèle, Janet Vigna, Matthew Tontonoz, and Gunjan Sinha.Biology for a Changing World, with Physiology. New York City: W.H. Freeman, 2014. Print.
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