2. Notes on Lipids, Emulsion, Surfactant, Membranes
2. Notes on Lipids, Emulsion, Surfactant, Membranes LSM1401
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by HAN ZIXUAN on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LSM1401 at National University of Singapore taught by Jayaraman Sivaraman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Fundamental of biochemistry in Biology at National University of Singapore.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Brief Notes Lecture 2 1 Oil Lipids Fats Oil is a chemical substance Plant oils are liquid fat mostly highly viscus and nonpolar in nature Palm and soybean oils are the most wildly produced and consumed oils in the tropical region of the world 413 million tonsyear Natural oils are triglycerides of fatty acids Palmitic acid and oleic acid are the two major fatty acids in most of the natural oils Lipids are fat and fatlike compounds that are soluble in the organic solvents and have minimum or no solubility in water Fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides Triqlvcerides are formed bv the combination of qlvcerol with three fattv acid molecules Fatty acids are the carboxylic acids of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains aliphatic mean liner chain aromatic means close ring ie cyclic Fatty acids contain 424 carbon atoms in their chain In saturated fatty acids all the bonds between the carbon atoms are single whereas in unsaturated fatty acids they have doubletriple bonds between the carbon atoms Not necessarily all the bonds should be doubletriple bond to become unsaturated fatty acid Liquid hydrocarbons are generally known as oils These hydrocarbons are attracted by weak forces eg van der Waals interactions Based on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbons they prefer different phases Less carbon atomscontaining hydrocarbons that are in gas phase where the molecules are more separated Whereas if the molecule has medium number of carbon atoms they are somewhat closer and hence in the liquid phase but in the solid phase the molecules may have more carbon atoms and they stay closer 2 Dipole In the molecules the electron distribution is not static electrons are moving around and produce small charge differences making the atoms into transient dipoles The weak interaction between these dipoles is the van der Waal interactions Electronegativity is the electron attracting power of an atom in a covalent bond In general elements with lesser atomic radius will have higher electronegativity Hydrogen bond is a weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction dipole dipole between hydrogen in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other 3 Emulsion Emulsion is the mixture of two unmixable uids The hydrophobic effect and surface tension separate liquid phases by minimizing their interface surface area Eg oil and water whole fat milk Hydrophobic effect minimizes solvation water interacting surface area Emulsi ers stabilize the emulsion It contains hydrophilic heads to form interaction with water and hydrophobic heads to form interaction with oil Homogenization making the droplets small and of even size homogenization decreases the diameter of the droplets and increases the droplet density 4 SurfactantDetergent Surfactant A substance that reduces the surface tension of water Detergent is a surfactant The hydrophilic head group of a detergent interacts with water molecules and reduces the surface tension Soap is the detergent whose hydrophobic group interact with the stain and hydrophilic group interact with water by doing so it soubiizes by forming micelles that enclose the strains inside and removes the strains The reaction between a fatty acid and a base lead to the product fatty acid salt ie the soap D g 7 C5 git H HEB V v awaoHrnio Ci gt 397 1 quotquot 3 Eli heat g D 0N3 0 H H b To F3 all LEE fatty acid Salli Glycerin lamp 5 Virus Bacterial Virus is bad When they enter human body they are called antigens antigens are then killed by antibodies Most bacterial are good for human body Bad bacterial are called pathogen 6 Membranes Lipids Membranes are formed by lipid Lipids systematically assemble into several shapes eg spheres cylinders liposomes sheets these assemblies are very extensive have no edges and have the selfsealing property Lipids and detergents have almost similar structure and properties Three major types of lipids found in the biological bilayer membranes are phospholipids sphingolipids and cholesterol lipids Cholesterol lipid is a unique in this category Lipids can be used as liposomes to encapsulate the drug to prolong the lifetime of the drug and for targeted drug delivery lal P hosphoglycerides Head group H 39 1 Shin Dill quotIds iilH PE p p g m 0H 0 CH3CH T 3 Dquot 39 3 o CH 7 v NH SM W l 3 5quot lrllicH3 7 WWW ONED TDAV C Ha PC 0 0H v y y D O OH Hydrt 39 quot H 7 HQ r I H Glo 0 Cholesterol N on oer H P5 0 o 0 0H OH OH H0 4 DiH D 1 2 3 Pl Cholesterol is also know as sterol Application of lipids Encapsulate the druds prolond lifetime of druds tardeted drud delivery
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