2. Notes on Rubber, Cotton, Polycarbonate, Carbohydrate, Agar
2. Notes on Rubber, Cotton, Polycarbonate, Carbohydrate, Agar LSM1401
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by HAN ZIXUAN on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LSM1401 at National University of Singapore taught by Jayaraman Sivaraman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamental of biochemistry in Biology at National University of Singapore.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Brief Notes Lecture 3 1 Rubber Rubber is a natural biomaterial it is a stickv elastic solid product from a milkv liouid called latex ie rubber in the liquid form obtained from trees or plants Rubber is a hydrocarbon polymer consisting of isoprene monomers ln rubber the crosslink between the polyisoprene chains confers the elasticity iui39mloonizatioln Process Vulcanization is a process that forms the sulfur cross NETUTEIRWWE Ruthm link between the polyisoprene chainsThis crosslink 395le T T T T Tl increases the strength and elasticity of rubber TFT5ElfTET Tlth fUT iTiT 1 H l ai Illi ioal H H quot1 Synthetic rubber is obtained as a petroleum by H H H quot i H prOd UCt o o i c Jo o o l l H l l l l 2 Cotton Cotton is an example of natural cellulose The cellulose bers consist of macro brils l39l micro brils l39l chains of cellulose molecules polvmer Cellulose is a polymer formed by the condensation of betaD gluc0pvranose units One beta subunit joins with other beta subunit through a condensation reaction a covalent bond form through the elimination of water between position 1 and 4 and forms the polymer chain H Intro chain llbornd Hardrogenlbondiingwithinand 31 0 9H J V OI 39 film on H 5 Leg 0 L quot Chain 1 l l l D 390 39 betweencellulose molecules 3 2 H k quot HO OH The hydrogen bonding crosslink between the a 4 b cellulose chains forms the micro brils The quot2 Chain crystalline region of the cellulose brils has m more ordered and more complete hydrogen 77777 bonding contacts than the amorphous regions 539 Jr l The Strength Of the crYStalline region be I Amorphous region Crystalline regior Amorphous region H higher than amorphous region The cellulose can be chemically modi ed as cellulose HEW HEW acetate a semisynthetic polymer Cellulose acetate 395 g D has better properties than cellulose such as it has 393ng f fa DH gt1 improved solubility toughness and transparency m a E These properties of cellulose acetate are very useful to spin cast and mold for various applications 3 Polycarbonate 0 Polycarbonate PC is another industrially important thermoplastic The monomers of polycarbonate are bisphenol A BPA PC is highly transparent it has excellent toughness and thermal stability PC is one of the most widely used thermoplastic from bullet proof window to CD DVS and everything can be made from PC For example the lter member can be made from PC using the tracketched method The tracketched method uses heavy ions to make small holes in the thin PC membrane or bombarded with heavy ions the precise narrow pores are being made in the membrane Cellulose acetate 4 Carbohydrates All sugars are carbohydrates and are classi ed as simple and complex carbohydrates Simple carbohydrates consist of monosaccharide one sugar molecule and disaccharides two sugar molecules The complex carbohydrates consist of polysaccharides several sugar molecules The monosaccharaides are the building blocks of polysaccharides CH eH CHEDH CHEW 2 e f H D D 3636 HJH I CIH DH Dal H HQ 7 v elll 3H HQ 1 39 l39 OH OH O H 1 0 xDGllueupylrannse 39 Hquot 39 glucose a monosaccharide HDCHE OH H at It Q sucrose a disaccharide H EDH CHEDH CHEDH CHECIH CHEDH D D D 3 ECHz H u lueese DH OH OH DH V 2 a E W Cl C 3 3 lt2 1 upen chain farm OH OH OH OH amylose a polysaccharidestarch Monosaccharides are cyclic molecules ie containing ring structure or closed chain form containing 5 to 6 carbon atoms In nature the sugar molecules are present in closed chain or open chain form However the closed chain form is the most preferred form in the cells whereas the open chain form is rarely less than 1 observed Baua llueepyra nose 5 Agar Agar is a gelling agent or gels are made from red algae At low temperature lt40 C the gels are solid Gels are elastic but brittle held together by the hvdroqen bonding crosslink t l illglllll Agar consists of agarose Agarose is a monomer of galactose disaccharides Dgalactose and 36anhydroL galactopyranose ll quotu ii i Hi i EH 3 lliilulllmsu 31 Hahn l l jlu39LI l lll ll vVxvVvxvv 39v V V l 77 Wi jllml39lulilllbit i Agarose agarose chain dimer helices gel 5 Y i C vam m b d ill bends Crossllinlcs 33933quot l 391 L I Agarose covalently bonds to form agarose chains approx 800 monomers form a chain D Hydrogen bonds between TWO chains forms the dimer helices helical ber D The hydrogen bond crosslink between the dimer helices forms the gel Agarose gel has several applications example Protein and DNA separation using gel electrophoresis
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