4. Notes on Nucleotides, DNA, RNA, Protein structure
4. Notes on Nucleotides, DNA, RNA, Protein structure LSM1401
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by HAN ZIXUAN on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LSM1401 at National University of Singapore taught by Jayaraman Sivaraman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Fundamental of biochemistry in Biology at National University of Singapore.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Brief Notes L4 Nucleotides gt Nucleic Acids gt Duplexes 1 Nucleotides Nucleotides consist of three parts the Phosphate group Pentose sugar 5carbon sugar and the Nucleobase Nucleotides consist of 5 different bases These are grouped into Purines two ring structure and N NL NH2 39139 Nitrogenous base 0 T o CH2 0 Phosphate 5 Carbon Sugar Pyrimidines single ring structure The nucleotide monomers may consist of 1 or more phosphate groups such as monophosphate diphosphate and triphosphate Example Adenosine monophosphate AMP Adenosine Diphosphate ADP and Adenosine Triphosphate ATP These independent nucleotides are involved in various biological functions Adenine Highsenergly bonds Fiib39ose Phosphate Adenosine Adenosine rnonolplliosphlale AMP Adenosine diphosphate ADP I Adlenovsine triphosphate ATP 2 Nucleic Acids Puhnes NH l N x H I N f In I X l 3 ll 39 3 1 I H if T quot 39 a l i MHI2 H H Adenine Guanine Pyrimidines NH C 39c H Hair Hl IN 11 le quot v N l I R n Cytnsine Uracil Thymi e DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Double stranded ds Very long molecules ds Carries genetic information RNA ribonucleic acid Single stranded 55 and double stranded Short molecules than DNA 3 types of RNAs transfer RNA tRNA ribosome RNA rRNA and messenger RNA mRNA mRNA copies genetic information from DNA and binds with ribosome ribosome translates the mRNA sequence into a polypeptide chain protein DNA N W RNA 7 Adenine A f quot0Hquot Adenine A UracilU t New ThymineT 4 gt CytosineC GuanineG 54 fquot CytosineC wt 399 G U a n n e G Adenine A Thymine 1r Guanine GI Cytosine C 5f HOCH2 o 5 0H Hocn2 0 0H l clv l c39 Hj H Hl lt In RNA an OH group is present in the 239 position Hl32Hj H32H if whereas It IS absent In DNA OH OH OH H Ribos e D eoxyribose 3 Phosphodiester bond is a covalent bond formed between the pentose suoar OH drou0 position 339 of one nucleotide and the phosbhate drou0 position 539 of the other nucleotide thus linking two nucleotides in the nucleic acid to form a single strand The direction of the nucleic acid chain strand is from 539 gt 339 4 Hierarchy of nucleic acid structures Primary 1 structure is the linear order of the nucleotides connected by Ph05phodiester bonds to form the nucleic acids DNAstructure S39phosphaie Secondary 2 structures are based on the hydrogen bonding and I D hydrophobic interactions this will lead to double helix duplex and 539 stem loop structures The duplexes are the selfassembly of DNA strands Cf 5 CARA into a double standard helix The KMA c strands in duplex are antiparallel and in mm complementarv Antiparallel the two stands are parallel but run in opposite directions one is 539 to 339 other is 339 to M C mpuemembawm H i Complementary if the sequence of one strand is known the other e TM A T AGGS39 5 GG U39A G 339 interacting strand sequence can be DNA molecule RNA molecule 339 HDWWH 5 predicted A purine will interact onlv with a Specific pvrimidine 5 Minor groove and major groove The strand backbones eg phosphate groups are closer together on one side of the helix than on the other The major groove occurs where the backbones are far apart the minor groove occurs where they are 3 close together Mamlgre le Phosphate group backbone e Negative chargeS 6 Four major forces that govern the duplex formation Hvdrogen bonding between the nucleobase hvdronhobic effect and van der walls interactions lead to base stacking and the electrostatic repulsive force between the phosphate groups ve charge 7 Quaternary Structure DNA and RNA may combine with proteins and form large nucleoprotein complexes a quaternary structure Ribosome the protein producing machinery of the cell is an example of an RNAprotein complex ribonucleoprotein complex The function of a ribosome is the synthesis of a polypeptide chain protein from an mRNA template Similarly chromatin is the example of DNA protein complex controlling gene expression and DNA replication 8 separate histone protein subunits attach to the DNA double helix l nucleosome 6 nucleosome coi together then stack on each other D chromatin DNA technology has many applications genetic engineering is one among the most important applications Engineering the DNA of a cell to alter its function to produce new products example production of human proteins in bacteria In 1962 James Watson Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins jointly received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the structure of DNA