8. Notes on Metabolic fuels, Starch, glycogen, lipids, Biofuels, Fermentation of Ethanol, Jatroprha
8. Notes on Metabolic fuels, Starch, glycogen, lipids, Biofuels, Fermentation of Ethanol, Jatroprha DSC2008
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by HAN ZIXUAN on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DSC2008 at National University of Singapore taught by QUEK, Ser Aik in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Business Analytics - Data & Decisions in Behavioral Sciences at National University of Singapore.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Brief Notes –L8 Metabolic fuels Metabolic fuels provide energy for the cellular activities. The three major storage forms of cellular fuels are starch, glycogen and fat. Starch – stores energy from the sunlight – long term energy storage in plants Glycogen – short term energy storage in animals Fat droplet – long term energy storage in animals Sunlight energy is captured by plants and stored in seeds and roots as starch. Starch is a polysaccharide of glucose, and is made up of amylose and amylopectin. Plants starch consists of 80-90% amylopectin and 10-20% amylose. Amylose is the linear form with α1 →4 glycosidic bond linkages whereas Amylopectin consists of α1 →4 linear chain AND branched chain α1 →6 glycosidic bond linkages. WIKIPEIDA: Amylose is a helical polymer made of α- D-glucose units, bound to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds. Amylopectin consists of glucose units are linked in a linear way with α(1→4) glycosidic bonds. Branching takes place with α(1→6) bonds occurring every 24 to 30 glucose units, resulting in a soluble molecule that can be quickly degraded as it has many end points onto which enzymes can attach. In contrast, amylose contains very few α(1→6) bonds, or even none at all. This causes amylose to be hydrolyzed more slowly, but have higher density and be insoluble. α -Dglucose: OH points down. β -D-glucose: OH points up. The branched chains of starch are packed into semi crystalline granules. During digestion various enzymes digest starch into glucose. The amylase enzymes randomly cleave the bigger chains into smaller fragments (oligosaccharides). Glycosidase enzyme further cleaves them into glucose. *An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to nine) of simple sugars (monosaccharides) Animals store short-term energy into glycogen, similar to starch, is a glucose polysaccharide. Similar to starch, it is made up of amylose and amylopectin polysaccharides, however it has more branched polysaccharide chains than starch. Glycogen is also known as animal starch. Starch - moderate branched Glycogen - highly branched S. No Starch Glycogen Remarks 5 7 6 9 Molecular 10 -10 10 -10 masses Linkages one branch every one brand every 10- glycogen has twice as many 20-30 1-4 linkages 12 1,4 linkages 1-6 linkages than starch Granule semi-crystalline Non-crystalline granule granule Storage seeds, tubers, roots liver and muscle How glycogen works ??? In our body starch (from diet) is broken down in gut to produce glucose. These glucose molecules circulate in the blood stream and enter into the cells. In the liver glucose is converted into glycogen for storage. When required the glycogen release glucose back into the blood stream. The glucose molecules in both glycogen and starch are linked through α glycosidic bond whereas the glucose molecules in cellulose are linked through β glycosidic bonds. Animals store long-term energy as lipids lipids have higher energy density than sugars. The energy density depends on their varying proportions of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Lipids have more carbon and hydrogen atoms than oxygen atoms. Higher energy density. Triglyceride is the major form of fat (lipid) stored by the body. Excess sugar is converted into lipids (glucose-pyruvate-fatty acid) and stored in adipose tissue. Transport of lipids in the body The lipids are water insoluble. The transport of insoluble lipids in our body is a problem. Large fat droplets (dietary fat) form emulsions of micelles with bile salts (as emulsifier of lipid) from the gall bladder. Then the pancreatic lipase enzymes from the pancreas convert triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol. Subsequently the fatty acids and glycerol pass across the intestine membrane and reassemble into triglycerides and finally packed into chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particle (small globules composed of protein and lipid) consists of phospholipids (~10%, as outer layer), triglycerides(~85%), cholesterol(~2%) and proteins(~1-3%). Chylomicrons transport the dietary lipids from the intestine to other locations in the body (liver, adipose tissue and muscle) by water-based solution in bloodstream. Extract energy from fat (lipids) Lipase enzyme degrades the triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. In liver: the glycerol is converted to pyruvate and glucose by the process glycolysis and gluconeogensis respectively. In other tissues, the fatty acids are oxidized to acetyl CoA and then to CO 2nd water. These processes resulting in the electron transport chain to produce ATP. Fatty acid oxidation Stage 1: A long-chain fatty acid is oxidized to yield acetyl residues in the form of acetyl-CoA. Stage 2: The acetyl residues are oxidized to CO via2the Citric Acid Cycle. Stage 3: Electrons derived from the oxidations of stages 1 and 2 are passed to O via2the mitochondrial respiratory chain, providing the energy for ATP synthesis by oxidative phosphorylation. Biofuels – Renewable Resource Biofuels are examples of renewable energy sources. Renewable energy is from an energy resource that is replaced by a natural process at a rate that is equal to or faster than the rate at which that resource is being consumed. Biofuels are obtained from plant biomass. Fuels such as methane and ethanol are obtained from the sugars (glucose) of plant materials, whereas biodiesel is produced from the oil/fat and algae. Fermentation of Ethanol: Glucose Pyruvate Acetaldehyde Ethanol Lingocellulose - source of ethanol. Lignocellulose (plant dry matter - biomass) is composed of carbohydrate polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose), and an aromatic polymer (lignin). Algae is a good source of biofuel. It grows in fresh water, salt water and waste water i.e. it can grow anywhere. It needs only CO 2nd sunlight. No special condition, soil or nutrients are required. The sugar from algae is converted into ethanol and the lipids (TG) from algae is converted into biodiesel. Algae is one among the fastest growing plants, >50% of its weight is oil. Huge amount of biofuel can be obtained from algae. It contains no sulfur and no toxic compounds. Biofuel from algae has reduced greenhouse gas emission. A greenhouse gas is any gaseous compound such as water vapor, methane, ozone, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide in atmosphere that are capable of trapping and holding heat from sunlight. This effect will lead to global warming. Jatroprha curcas a non-edible oil seed also produce biofuel. The biodiesel has several advantages over petro diesel. It produces lower amounts of air pollutants (low emission of greenhouse gases and no sulfates or toxic compounds produced) except nitrogen oxide. The limitations - currently only blend of biofuels with petro fcan be used - lower economy and power ratio (i.e. expensive). * 20% blend of biodiesel + 80% petro fuel= B20; Neat 100% Biodiesel = B100
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