9. Notes on Fossil fuel, Petroleum Refinery, Respiration
9. Notes on Fossil fuel, Petroleum Refinery, Respiration LSM1401
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by HAN ZIXUAN on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LSM1401 at National University of Singapore taught by Jayaraman Sivaraman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Fundamental of biochemistry in Biology at National University of Singapore.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Brief Notes L9 Energy is the capacity of a system to do work Chemical Energy Energy stored in molecules that is released or absorbed during a chemical reaction Biological Energy Energy stored in lipid carbohydrates and protein Released for cellular function or activities Fossil fuel is the fuel from the earth crude oil 3PP394PP WA coal natural gas or heavy oils etc burial and decomposition of Petroleum is a viscous liquid of hydrocarbons organicmat tet According to the generally accepted theory temperaturemzoc t p 7 10000 ft below sea level I PEUOIEUW 395 der39VEd from the anc39ent b39omass formation of waxy lkeragen and tarallke lblturnen that IS from the anCIent fossmzed organic emperatwelm mw materials Tiny sea plants and animals died and t 7 if 7 t t d I were buried on the ocean oor Over time they rans 39 ma m 0 CW E 939 7 temperature gt2UU 3E were covered by layers of sediment and rock Over millions of years the remains were buried conlvelrsion to natural gages deeper and deeper The enormous heat and pressure turned them into oil and gas Today we drill down through the layer of sedimentary rock to reach the oil and gas deposits Petroleum consists of three different types of hydrocarbons such as alkanes naphtha and aromatics Composition of Louisiana Crude Oil Final Petroleum Products 56 Alkanes C11C32 1 or more 6 C4 gases 4 membered ring cycloparaf ns large C5 C12 gasoline 42 cycloalkanes with greater than 20 carbon C9 C16 diesel 22 atoms C10 C16 keroseneparaf njet fuel 9 19 Napthas C5C12 hydrocarbons C12 C18 fuel oil 5 17 Aromatics mainly benzene others The crude oil from different locations of the world is differing in their composition The crude oil is converted into fuel products by re ning process The rst step in this process is based on the boiling point ie crude oil is separated by distillation Lightest components that have low boiling point that comes out rst and the heaviest one which has the highest boiling point will condense at the bottom of the distillation column Petroleum Gasl GasolinepetrolleaphthaLigroin Kerosene lDiesel oil Lubricating oil lFuel oil DResidue After the distillation of crude oil various fractions are collected and taken for the next level of re ning process to further separate the independent components of each fraction These processes include steam creaking catalytic cracking isomerization and reforming As a last step of re ning the separated products are treated with chemicals eg lead and removed unwanted chemicals eg sulfur to alter the combustion property Crude oil Gas Naphtha Keroslne Gas oil Other fractions l l l l l l 6 l l Methane Ethane Propane Butane Ethene Branched alkanes Aviation Fuel for lEthene Longer chain Propane Cyclohexane fuel di esl E i lPropene images Butenes Aromafr o engmes Butenes rh jlf 39 39 h drocarbons 7 map a Ethane Propane Ethene Buta 13 dlene V Branched alkanes Propane Aromatic Cycloalkanes hydrocarbons Aroma c hydrocarbons Methylpropane Distillation Steam cracking 3 Catalytic cracking hydrocraekrng Amma c hydrocarbons leomerisation benzene methylbenzene Reforman platforming dimethy lbenzenes Sblfor is removed ethylbenzene Steam cracking is one of the most technically complex and energy intensive process in the chemical industry It requires equipments to operate from 100 K to 1400 K and in near vacuum to 100 atm Catalytic cracking a catalyst is used to lower the reaction temperatures Cracking breaks larger hydrocarbons into smaller more valuable hydrocarbons lsomerization is the chemical process in which hydrocarbon molecules are rearranged into a more useful molecule Reforming is another chemical process in which hydrocarbon molecules are rearranged into other molecules usually with the loss of a small molecule such as hydrogen In the last step of re ning the separated and converted products are treated by blending eg lead removing undesired chemicals eg sulfur to alter the combustion properties or improve performance of the machinery The energy content of a fuel is released when the hydrocarbon is converted to C02 and water This is known as the heat of combustion The energy and enthalpy is almost same except the enthalpy is expressed in terms of volume and pressure H EPV The combustion reaction of methane is an example of exothermic reaction An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by heat and or light In the exothermic reaction the reactant have more energy than the end products Thus the enthalpy change AH is negative resulting in a temperature increase Endothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that absorbs energy ie heat The value of enthalpy change AH is positive for the endothermic reaction Combustion of hydrocarbon involves oxidation by oxygen Oxidation state of carbon is high when the carbon is bound to more electronegative atom Carbon will be in the more reduced state when it is bound to less electronegative atom Combustion is the complete oxidation of organic compound into C02 and H20 in the presence of 02 gas gt Not all oxidizing reactions are combustion reaction but all combustion is oxidation eg iron oxidized into iron oxide ie rust Fe D Fe304 is not a combustion gt Not all oxidation reactions involve heat whereas combustion reactions involve heat The reaction rate of combustion is high and it involves heat C02 is the product of combustion reaction of hydrocarbons We know that CO2 is the greenhouse gas and it absorbs and retains heat from sunlight The continuous increase of C02 in the atmosphere is a serious problem global warming Energy density Ed is the energy E per unit volume V of a fuel EdEN Speci c energy E5 is the energy E per unit mass m of a fuel EsEm The energy content of fossil fuels is comparable with biofuels whereas the nuclear fuels have huge energy than any of the fuels Diesel has higher energy density than most of the other fossil and biofuels The comparison of Haulme 45 fuels such as gasoline fat carbohydrates proteins and wood from 39 natural sources show that gasoline has highest speci c energy Next fat 3 fat ie lipids has high hydrocarbon content and thus it has similar carllmlhydrartes 1 speci c energy as gasoline While carbohydrates wood and proteins mmm 15 that have lower speci c energy because the hydrocarbon content is p not same as fat In general greater the hydrocarbons content higher End 13952 the energy High hydrocarbon content high Respiration Respiration cellular reactions that extract energy from glucose into 3038 ATPs energy and end products C02 and H20 as end products Aerobic resoiration When the body is able to supply the cells with the oxygen and glucose they need the cells oxidize the glucose by aerobic respiration to produce C02 H20 and ATP lgiumsz nxy96 i giag i dgl39l39l Water Anaerobic respiration When the body cannot supply the cells with the oxygen needed to break down glucose produce the lactic acid and ATP Energy is released without oxygen F lactic acid 5E ATP from Glucose l1 Ff 1 Elmn mumrt 39 i Eh 39rl39il im l Chemiosmosis is the movement of ions across the membrane more speci cally it relates to the generation of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions H across a membrane Energy is releaseol when ATP is hydrolyzed Water 0 ll Ho rla o liiian gm F 1 if ADP Inorganic Energy phosphate Figure 92b Biological Science ie 2005 Parson Prentice Hall llnc When ATP is hydrolyzed ie the gamma phosphate gets cleaved aka hydrolysis of phosphoanhydride linkage it produces ADP and inorganic phosphate with the release of 73kcalmol energy