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November 2-5 Exam Review Notes

by: Emily Mcp

November 2-5 Exam Review Notes Bio 130

Emily Mcp

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Review notes for Exam 2
Introduction to Plant Biology
Virginia Freire
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Mcp on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 130 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Virginia Freire in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Plant Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.


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Date Created: 11/05/15
BIO 130 Exam 2 Review  Diffusion ­ the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy  of random motion  Osmosis ­ the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi­permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration to lower to equalize  Water gradient ­ the rate of change in formation fluid pressure with depth  Water Potential ­ The measure of the relative tendency of water to move from one area to another  Transpiration ­ evaporation of water from plant leaves  Hydathode ­ Type of secretory tissue in leaves that secretes water through pores in the  epidermis or margin of leaves **Usually in aquatic plants  Soil ­ mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the countless organisms  that together support life on Earth.  Field Capacity of Soil ­ The amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased  **Usually takes 2­3 days  Digestion ­ the process of treating a substance by means of heat, enzymes, or a solvent to  promote decomposition or extract essential components.  Purpose of Cellular Respiration ­ uses oxygen and breaks down the sugar to form carbon  dioxide and water accompanied by the release of heat, and production of ATP.  Cellular Respiration Formula ­  ­  4 steps to Aerobic Respiration –  1. Glycolysis  2. Formation of acetyl coenzyme A  3. The citric acid cycle  4. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis   Where does "Glycolysis" take place in the cell ­ Cytoplasm  Where does the "Formation of acetyl coenzyme A" take place in the cell ­ brought into  the mitochondrion  Where does the "Citric acid cycle" take place in a cell ­ Two ATP molecules are  synthesized for each glucose molecule entering the cell  Where does the "Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis" take place in the cell ­  mitochondrial membrane  Photosynthesis ­ process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into  chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.  Which colors of light are most efficient for photosynthesis? ­ They are in the red and  blue/violet range. This is because these are the colors that get absorbed the most by plant  pigments, particularly chlorophyll.  Pigment ­ the natural coloring matter of animal or plant tissue.  Photosystem ­ functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in  photosynthesis that together carry out the absorption of light and the transfer of energy  and electrons.  Photolysis ­ chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons  Photophosphorilation ­ the use of light energy from photosynthesis to ultimately provide  the energy to convert ADP to ATP  Photorespiration ­ a process in plant metabolism which attempts to reduce the  consequences of a wasteful oxygenation reaction by the enzyme RuBisCO.  What is consumed during the Calvin Cycle ­ ATP and NADPH  CAM Plant ­ the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the day to reduce  evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon dioxide (CO2).  Plant Hormone ­ are chemicals that regulate plant growth  5 main plant hormones ­ auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid  Sexual reproduction ­ two parents contribute genetic information to produce unique  offspring.  Zygote ­ is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes  Gamete ­ a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of  the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.  Fertilization ­ Fertilization is the process of fusion of the female gamete, the ovum or egg and the male gamete produced in the pollen tube by the pollen grain  haploid ­ when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes  diploid ­ one set of chromosomes from each parent  life cycle ­ the series of changes in the life of an organism, including reproduction.  alternation of generations ­ The fluctuation between these diploid and haploid stages that  occurs in plants  Codon ­ a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific  amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis.  Anticodon ­ region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are  complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA.  Mutation ­ permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism,  virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.  What is the expected genotypic and phenotypic ratio for the cross of RRYY x rryy? ­ 1  for both­ all are RrYy  What is the expected genotypic and phenotypic ratio for the cross RrYy x RrYy? ­  Genotypic: 1:2:2:1:4:1:2:2:1  Phenotypic: 9:3:3:1  Law of Segregation for one gene ­ A diploid organism passes a randomly selected allele  for a trait to its offspring, such that the offspring receives one allele from each parent  Law of independent assortment for two or more genes ­ Unlinked or distantly linked  segregating gene pairs assort independently at meiosis.  What is the the genotypic and phenotypic ratio obtained after crossing heterozygous  parents for one character ­ Genotypic: 1:2:2  Phenotypic: 3:1  What happens after crossing homozygous dominant with homozygous recessive parents?  ­ 1 for both­ all have on dominant gene and one recessive  Roles of water in plants ­ Maintaining cell turgidity for structure and growth  Transporting nutrients  Compromises most of the protoplasm  Helps processes such as photosynthesis  Adhesion ­ Adhesion is the force that holds substrates together in opposition to stresses  exerted to pull the substrates apart.  Cohesion ­ the sticking together of particles of the same substance.  Cohesion/Adhesion Theory ­ 1) Water loss from leaf cells due to lower humidity in the  air  (2) Water from xylem flows into the mesophyll.   (3) Water molecules stick together (cohesion), water molecules also stick to the cell walls (adhesion), and tension is transmitted down the xylem to the roots. (4) Water flows from  root cells into the xylem   (5) Water flows from soil into the root cells   (6) Precipitation replenishes the water potential in the soil  Guttation ­ exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some  vascular plants, such as grasses.  Where does the pressure for guttation come from? ­ When the pressure in the root cells  pushes water­carrying xylem up, the pressure forces excess water out of the leaves  through special structures called hydathodes located at the tip and margins or leaves  How do sugars move in the phloem (what direction)? ­ Within the phloem, sugars travel  from areas of high osmotic concentration and high water pressure, called sources, to  regions of low osmotic concentration and low water pressure, called sinks.  High­>Low  Essential Nutrient definition ­ A nutrient in which an organism must obtain from the  environment or from a dietary source since the organism is unable to synthesize it  What are macronutrients for plants? (know 3) ­ N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S  Factors of soil weathering –  1. Parent material  2. Climate 3. Living organisms  4. Topography  5. Time  Which soil horizon has the highest chemical, physical and biological activity? ­ A  Horizon  permanent wilting percentage ­ The amount of water a soil contains after plants are wilted beyond recovery  Why is air an important component of soils for plants –  1. It is essential for respiration in plants. 2. It helps in the germination of seeds. 3. It helps in the absorption of plant nutrients. 4. Essential for root development. 5. Needed in the nitrogen and carbon cycles. 6. Oxygen is necessary for growth and development.  Phototropic response ­ is the growth response of a plant in response to light direction  Plants' shoot phototropic response ­ Stems exhibit positive phototropism ­> Towards light  Advantages of sexual reproduction of cloning ­ evolution, variation, and natural selection, which all help organisms survive in their ever changing environments  The ultimate electron receptor in aerobic respiration ­ Oxygen  The ultimate electron receptor in fermentation ­ acetaldehyde  Genetic Code ­ the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material  (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells.  Genetic Engineering ­ the modification of an organism's genetic composition by artificial  means, often involving the transfer of specific traits, or genes, from one organism into a  plant of an entirely different species.  Transgenic Organism ­ An organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered by  the insertion of a modified gene or a gene from another organism using the techniques of  genetic engineering.  Transformation Vector ­ plasmids that have been specifically designed to facilitate the  generation of transgenic plants  RNA ­ polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding,  regulation, and expression of genes  DNA Translation ­ the synthesis of proteins directed by a mRNA template


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