November 2-5 Exam Review Notes
November 2-5 Exam Review Notes Bio 130
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Mcp on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 130 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Virginia Freire in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Plant Biology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
BIO 130 Exam 2 Review Diffusion the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their kinetic energy of random motion Osmosis the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration to lower to equalize Water gradient the rate of change in formation fluid pressure with depth Water Potential The measure of the relative tendency of water to move from one area to another Transpiration evaporation of water from plant leaves Hydathode Type of secretory tissue in leaves that secretes water through pores in the epidermis or margin of leaves **Usually in aquatic plants Soil mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Field Capacity of Soil The amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased **Usually takes 23 days Digestion the process of treating a substance by means of heat, enzymes, or a solvent to promote decomposition or extract essential components. Purpose of Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and breaks down the sugar to form carbon dioxide and water accompanied by the release of heat, and production of ATP. Cellular Respiration Formula https://o.quizlet.com/.S0Sz0AC4sZVCT6EAHguLg_m.jpg 4 steps to Aerobic Respiration – 1. Glycolysis 2. Formation of acetyl coenzyme A 3. The citric acid cycle 4. Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis Where does "Glycolysis" take place in the cell Cytoplasm Where does the "Formation of acetyl coenzyme A" take place in the cell brought into the mitochondrion Where does the "Citric acid cycle" take place in a cell Two ATP molecules are synthesized for each glucose molecule entering the cell Where does the "Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis" take place in the cell mitochondrial membrane Photosynthesis process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities. Which colors of light are most efficient for photosynthesis? They are in the red and blue/violet range. This is because these are the colors that get absorbed the most by plant pigments, particularly chlorophyll. Pigment the natural coloring matter of animal or plant tissue. Photosystem functional and structural units of protein complexes involved in photosynthesis that together carry out the absorption of light and the transfer of energy and electrons. Photolysis chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons Photophosphorilation the use of light energy from photosynthesis to ultimately provide the energy to convert ADP to ATP Photorespiration a process in plant metabolism which attempts to reduce the consequences of a wasteful oxygenation reaction by the enzyme RuBisCO. What is consumed during the Calvin Cycle ATP and NADPH CAM Plant the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect carbon dioxide (CO2). Plant Hormone are chemicals that regulate plant growth 5 main plant hormones auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, and abscisic acid Sexual reproduction two parents contribute genetic information to produce unique offspring. Zygote is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes Gamete a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote. Fertilization Fertilization is the process of fusion of the female gamete, the ovum or egg and the male gamete produced in the pollen tube by the pollen grain haploid when a cell has half the usual number of chromosomes diploid one set of chromosomes from each parent life cycle the series of changes in the life of an organism, including reproduction. alternation of generations The fluctuation between these diploid and haploid stages that occurs in plants Codon a sequence of three DNA or RNA nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis. Anticodon region of a transfer RNA is a sequence of three bases that are complementary to a codon in the messenger RNA. Mutation permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. What is the expected genotypic and phenotypic ratio for the cross of RRYY x rryy? 1 for both all are RrYy What is the expected genotypic and phenotypic ratio for the cross RrYy x RrYy? Genotypic: 1:2:2:1:4:1:2:2:1 Phenotypic: 9:3:3:1 Law of Segregation for one gene A diploid organism passes a randomly selected allele for a trait to its offspring, such that the offspring receives one allele from each parent Law of independent assortment for two or more genes Unlinked or distantly linked segregating gene pairs assort independently at meiosis. What is the the genotypic and phenotypic ratio obtained after crossing heterozygous parents for one character Genotypic: 1:2:2 Phenotypic: 3:1 What happens after crossing homozygous dominant with homozygous recessive parents? 1 for both all have on dominant gene and one recessive Roles of water in plants Maintaining cell turgidity for structure and growth Transporting nutrients Compromises most of the protoplasm Helps processes such as photosynthesis Adhesion Adhesion is the force that holds substrates together in opposition to stresses exerted to pull the substrates apart. Cohesion the sticking together of particles of the same substance. Cohesion/Adhesion Theory 1) Water loss from leaf cells due to lower humidity in the air (2) Water from xylem flows into the mesophyll. (3) Water molecules stick together (cohesion), water molecules also stick to the cell walls (adhesion), and tension is transmitted down the xylem to the roots. (4) Water flows from root cells into the xylem (5) Water flows from soil into the root cells (6) Precipitation replenishes the water potential in the soil Guttation exudation of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some vascular plants, such as grasses. Where does the pressure for guttation come from? When the pressure in the root cells pushes watercarrying xylem up, the pressure forces excess water out of the leaves through special structures called hydathodes located at the tip and margins or leaves How do sugars move in the phloem (what direction)? Within the phloem, sugars travel from areas of high osmotic concentration and high water pressure, called sources, to regions of low osmotic concentration and low water pressure, called sinks. High>Low Essential Nutrient definition A nutrient in which an organism must obtain from the environment or from a dietary source since the organism is unable to synthesize it What are macronutrients for plants? (know 3) N, K, Ca, Mg, P, and S Factors of soil weathering – 1. Parent material 2. Climate 3. Living organisms 4. Topography 5. Time Which soil horizon has the highest chemical, physical and biological activity? A Horizon permanent wilting percentage The amount of water a soil contains after plants are wilted beyond recovery Why is air an important component of soils for plants – 1. It is essential for respiration in plants. 2. It helps in the germination of seeds. 3. It helps in the absorption of plant nutrients. 4. Essential for root development. 5. Needed in the nitrogen and carbon cycles. 6. Oxygen is necessary for growth and development. Phototropic response is the growth response of a plant in response to light direction Plants' shoot phototropic response Stems exhibit positive phototropism > Towards light Advantages of sexual reproduction of cloning evolution, variation, and natural selection, which all help organisms survive in their ever changing environments The ultimate electron receptor in aerobic respiration Oxygen The ultimate electron receptor in fermentation acetaldehyde Genetic Code the set of rules by which information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) is translated into proteins by living cells. Genetic Engineering the modification of an organism's genetic composition by artificial means, often involving the transfer of specific traits, or genes, from one organism into a plant of an entirely different species. Transgenic Organism An organism whose genetic characteristics have been altered by the insertion of a modified gene or a gene from another organism using the techniques of genetic engineering. Transformation Vector plasmids that have been specifically designed to facilitate the generation of transgenic plants RNA polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes DNA Translation the synthesis of proteins directed by a mRNA template
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