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HD202- week 2

by: Courtney Green

HD202- week 2 HD 202

Courtney Green
GPA 3.79
Child Development- Infancy/Toddlerhood
Maria Hernandez-Reif

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About this Document

Notes derived from lecture and conversation in lecture!
Child Development- Infancy/Toddlerhood
Maria Hernandez-Reif
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Green on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HD 202 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Maria Hernandez-Reif in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 303 views.


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Date Created: 01/23/15
HD 202002 01242015 Historical Views of Childhood 0 Childhood to age 7 or 8 was thought to be a separate phase of life where the child needed special protection and had special necessities 0 After 78 children became adults and belonged to society 0 Puritan Period 0 quotchild depravityquot views Children born evil and stubborn had to be civilized 0 Children were quotTainted soulsquot because of the fall of man Adam amp Eve Adults believed they must beat their children to make them pure ie beat the devilevil out of them In Modern Times spanking less likely to be compliant does not correct behavior Leads to child aggression 0 John Locke quottabula rasaquot or quotblank slatequot view Believed that children are not shaped by inheritance they are not born as the same person they are going to be for the rest of their lives Believed that children are entirely shaped by experience 0 Currently known as the nurture view 0 JeanJacques Rousseau o quotnoble savagesquot view the idea that when a child is born it is innocent and pure because it has not been corrupted by man or society 0 natural maturation 0 quotGod makes all things good man meddles with them and they become evilquot 0 Grandfather of permissive parenting Early Scienti c Study of Development 0 Darwin s ideas of natural selection and survival of the ttest are still in uential those who are the most t to survive will survive and pass on their surviving genes to their offspring o G Stanley Hall Founder of child study movement In the 1900 s decided to use the scienti c method and questionnaires to study children The rst to speak about adolescence as being a separate phase of life Wrote one of the rst development textbooks 0 Arnold Gesell Developed norms or milestone fact by using observations of children and parents interviews His books gained popularity among parents and became a central part of childrearing literature 0 IO develoomental agechronolodical ade Eg functions like a 3 year old but is 6 Q50 Functions like a 4 year old but is 20 Q20 gt116 above normal intelligence 80115 normal 7079 borderline de ciency 5069 mild mental retardation 3549 mental retardation 2034 severe mental retardation lt20 profound retardation Psychoanalytic perspective 0 Personality comes from the unconscious Behaviorism o Behaviors can be measured changed and trained Freud s Psychosexual Theory 0 Sigmund Freud 18561939 0 First to stress the in uence of early parent child relationship 0 Stages Oral birth1 yr n Focus on mouth sucking breastfeeding Anal 13 yrs I Focus on potty training control of bowel movements Phallic 36 years n Focus on Oedipuselectra complex child is aware of sexual differences between mother and father and compete for the attention of the opposite sex parent Latent 6 puberty n Psychosexual development remains dormant a Child tends to play with same sex friends a Focus is on new knowledge and skills Genital puberty adult a Sexual instinct returns a Focus on opposite sex 0 Id se sh ego inbetween mediates both Id and superego superego morals 0 Erik Erikson 19021994 Identi ed eight psychosocial crises that re ect a struggle between two con icting personality characteristics Psychosocial Theory 0 Interpersonal relationships 0 Focused on normal or typical versus abnormal 0 Basic trust v mistrust Birth1 year Babies begin to trust parents to tend to their basic needs if parents fail to do so the baby can develop mistrust o Autonomy v shame and doubt O O 13 years Children begin to explore Parents that encourage exploration develop children that are autonomous independent and parents that shame their child for exploring can develop a doubtful child Initiative v guilt 36 years Children that are encouraged to take play and interact socially develop the sense to take initiative and have some power of their own world whereas children who are discouraged from playing or do not receive adequate attentionpraise can become dependent and not feel like they are enough Industry v inferiority 611 years Children develop selfcon dence in themselves or they believe that they are inferior to others Identity v Role Confusion Adolescence lntimacy v isolation Emerging adulthood Generativity v stagnation Adulthood lntegrity v despair Old age Behaviorism and Social Learning Theories Focus directly observable events stimuli and responses 0 O O BF Skinner Operant conditioning Stimulus causes a Response that creates a Consequence lf behavior increases Reinforcer Reinforcer is anything likely to increase that response again Has to be unique for individuals o If behavior decreases punisher Punisher is anything likely to reduce that response again Again must be unique for individuals 0 Differential reinforcement of other lgnore bad behavior Praise good behavior as soon as it arises Albert Bandura 1925 still alive 0 Emphasized modeling imitation or observational learning 0 This theory stresses the importance of cognition o Selfefficacy belief in one s self to accomplish a goal or task 0 Bobo Doll Children watched an adult be aggressive with a blowup doll and in accordance with modeling when they were put in a room with the blowup doll the children exhibited the same behavior Under 2 children should not watch television


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