Interwar Germany and WWII
Interwar Germany and WWII HIST 102 011
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HIST 102 011
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taylor Strickland on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 102 011 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Daniel Snyder in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see European Civilization from the Mid-17th Century in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
HIST 102 Notes Interwar Germany and WWII Fascism is hypermodemity falsely claims to be with state serving individual appeal comes from our desire to punish those enemies of ours Jews for Hitler terrorists for America today if we aren t careful The Great Depression A Short History Starting in 1920s a global economic depression begins that appeared to have started in the US in the late 20s 1929 due to extensive lending to Europe unpaid debts and in ation Reparations for Germany paid to France and Britain who are paying US back for war time loans that is being loaned back to Germany by the US economic spiral Economic spiral of funds wasn t the primary cause but it was a huge factor in Europe Underconsumption in the US leads to cuts in prices then a cut in production aka laying off workers and the events of the stock market crash inn 1929 merely reveal not cause this trend Spreads from US to the weak European economies which crash and their imperial markets that also suffer and soon lead to decolonization movement postWWII Versailles Conference 1919 Produces Treaty of Versailles which officially ends WWI Germany loses territory small but important areas such as Ruhr valley colonies in Africa and severely limits their military to defense War reparations billions to Britain and France which Woodrow Wilson counseled against due to it causing defeatism and therefore resentment which will lead to a desire for revenge general claim but ended up predicting WWII War Guilt Clause states Germany is responsible for starting WWI although this is not true AustriaHungary divided Austria Hungary Czechoslovakia Balkans etc Ottoman Empire dissolved Turkey with other middle east mandates Dissolution of empires Germany AustriaHungary Ottoman and Russia into nationstates according to US although it made US an empire Nations left out leading directly to Italy and Japan s resentment about this Wilson wanted peace without victory didn t get anything but League of Nations which the US didn t even join Breeding Resentment in Germany War Guilt Clause makes Germany accept moral and diplomatic responsibility Loss of 13 of territory and overseas colonies Army is cut to 100000 men deprived of weapons Have to pay substantial war reparations Weimar Republic showed opportunity for Germany to recover from all that until it falls Hyperin ation 1923 European economies could bounce back after WWI but Germany s could not due to having to pay reparations Leads to thousands of Deutch marks being equivalent to I US Dollar This became so extreme that people had to take wheelbarrows of paper money to the store to buy a loaf of bread and found it to be more effective as a fire starter Rise of Adolf Hitler and Fascism in Germany Hitler started out as a soldier in WW1 who becomes deeply offended by Treaty of Versailles Joins Nazi part partakes in attempted coup in 1923 called the Beer Hall Putsch Goes to jail writes Mein Kampf My Struggle which is an antiSemitic rant with hatred directed towards Britain France and the US NASDP Nationalist Socialist Germany Party aka the Nazi Party with the swastika ancient symbol of power that was corrupted by the Nazis Election of 1928 Nazis have 2 of the vote but by 1933 have 439 meaning the Nazis were voted into power and did not just seize it contrary to popular belief Multiparty state meant that Nazis did not need majority but worked with other parties while making their opponents illegal Aligns democracy with farright and farleft Historian Lewis Sinclair says it best when he states When fascism comes to America it will be wrapped in the ag and carrying the cross Adolf Hitler Elected in 1933 Burning of Reichstag building allegedly by a communist history may never know for sure Leads to Hitler being made Chancellor due to his and Germany s desire for a tougher police state postReichstag attack Nazi party begins to take away freedoms from making opposition parties illegal to book burnings to yellow star of David Nuremberg Laws 1935 o Reich citizenship laws 0 Law for the protection of German blood and German honor 0 Made Aryan beliefs and prejudices into law AntiSemitic persecution happened over an extended period even Holocaust was in phases Persecution Begins Star of David and the citizen laws Pseudoscience phrenologylike to determine who is Jewish and who isn t Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass in 1938 when thugs attack Jewish shops temples and assault the people The World at War Again WWII 19391945 Border divisions and territory loss from Treaty of Versailles leads to Germans being spread out among multiple nations Hitler spoke of liberating these people from Poland Austria France Czechoslovakia etc Reveals how empires and leaders can use such rhetoric to get their people to fight for terrible causes PreWar Occupation Sends troops into demilitarized Rhineland in 1936 violating Treaty of Versailles revealed Hitler s desires for conquest to rest of world Annexation of Austria through voting voluntarily somewhat German troops were present Annexation of Sudetenland part of Czechoslovakia Munich Agreement 1938 o Neville Chamberlain s appeasement of Hitler immortalizes the Brit as an ideological fool who failed to see the writing on the wall 0 Peace in our time o Tells Hitler that West is weak and too pacifist to retaliate Invasion of Poland 1939 Last straw for Allies since they promised to protect Poland and it is the occupation that leads directly to the aforementioned war August 1939 MolotovRibbentrop Pact of nonaggression between USSR and Germany Unexpected alliance due to hatred of each other but despite their ideologies they sign it as a means to an end USSR redevelop and Germany takes Europe Blitzkrieg lightning war decimates Western part of Poland while Russia attacks Eastern side 6 weeks and Poland is down Americans look at this like a good war a template for all other wars the US goes into when in reality WWII was the only one that folded our like that mostly cause we weren t in Europe but across the pond and not being occupied Phony War Britain and France dragged into war when Germany invades Poland Nothing much happens until Invasion of France Germany takes France over a matter of weeks after they invade Belgium and the Netherlands Hitler follows Schlieffen Plan and marches into Paris despite Maginot line and excess defenses on schedule Leads to Allies retreating to Dunkirk and taking refuge in Britain Battle of Britain Hitler tries to destroy moral and costal defenses of Britain through air raids at a constant rate RAF outgunned and outmanned hold off German attack Never in the eld of human con ict was so much owed by so many to so few Churchill Britain and America did not have to deal with the moral and ethical backlash of who to be a collaborator or a resister while being a conquered nation for years This is not even counting what happened to the Jewish people who were mostly betrayed by their neighbors rather than the resistance attempts we so glorify which were few and far between Operation Barbarossa June 1941 Hitler makes biggest mistake and attempts to invade Russia worst mistake military leaders ever make Russia keeps falling back making advancement difficult as the boundary keeps moving back and their extremely stretched supply lines are sabotaged by peasants Battle of Stalingrad Major battle of Operation Barbarossa and ends after long siege and great sniper standoffs with Russian victor Germany is pushed back from early 1943 on by Soviet troops until Soviets march into Berlin in 1945 Soviets handled the entirety of the Eastern front and lost 2025 million people DDay 6 June 1944 Start of America s main contribution to the Western Front heroic and horrific battle with many casualties and turned the tide on the Western front Immortalized by movies such as Saving Private Ryan Holocaust Jews marched into the Lodz and Warsaw Ghettos 0 Ethnic undesirables Jews Roma people Homosexuals those of African descent sent to live in certain areas Executions in Local Forests 0 1st part of Holocaust traditional execution style dig your own grave and shot in the back of the head 0 Difficult for the Germans killing someone leads to some form of guilt in everyone by Psychopaths and very inefficient in the longterm Turned to vans and Carbon Monoxide poisoning as the next step Concentration and Death Camps o Rounded up and deported to unknown location normally transit camps 0 Over time the concentration camps or work camps weren t meant to kill but to extract labor 0 Death camps on the other hand were established as factories to kill as many people as possible crematoriums gas chambers etc mostly in Poland ie Auschwitz Treblinka etc May 1945 End of the War in Europe But trouble ahead Even as all were celebrating the end of the war con ict and refugees will continue Liberated by soviets only to be transported elsewhere rather than home Ghosts who were liberated from camps to get home only to no longer have a home or belongings Most of Eastern Europe remained occupied by USSR Everything has fallen apart how do we put Europe back together again