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GEOG 150: Week 7 Notes

by: Julia Gladding

GEOG 150: Week 7 Notes GEOG 150

Julia Gladding
Cal Poly
GPA 3.9

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About this Document

Detailed notes on lectures from 11/2 and 11/5 and assigned textbook reading (Rubenstein 246-257). Topics include ethnic cleansing, life under ISIS, Kurdistan, the U.S.'s history with ethnic/racial ...
Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography
Dr. Meg Streiff
Class Notes
ethnic cleansing, isis, segregation, Sri Lanka, Rwanda, Sudan, Myanmar, cultural geography, human geography, genocide
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 150 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Meg Streiff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 11/05/15
Monday, November 2, 2015 Rubenstein Ethnicities: Part 4 246-257 Why Do Ethnicities Engage in Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide? Introduction What is ethnic - ethnic cleansing = a process in which a more powerful cleansing? ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in When was the largest order to create and ethnically homogeneous region forced migration? - Largest forced migration: during WWII Ethnic Cleansing and the Balkans What countries make - Balkans: former Yugoslavia; present day Albania, up the Balkans? Bulgaria, Greece, Romania - Multiethnic Yugoslavia When/why was • After WWI, the allies created Yugoslavia, to unite Yugoslavia formed? several Balkan ethnicities that spoke similar South Slavic languages What saying describes • “Yugoslavia has seven neighbors, six republics, five multiethnic nationalities, four languages, three religions, two Yugoslavia? alphabets, and one dinar.” - 3 democratic neighbors, 4 Communist neighbors - republics had autonomy - dinar = national unit of currency. Common economic interests kept Yugoslavia’s nationalities unified. What was the Balkan • The multiethnic Balkan Peninsula had been a hotbed Peninsula like before/ of unrest. after the creation of - North: Austro-Hungarian Empire Yugoslavia? - South: Ottoman Empire • Creation of Yugoslavia brought stability What happened when • After Tito’s death, rivalries among ethnicities rivalries among resurfaced. Lead to the break up of the country. ethnicities resurfaced? • When Yugoslavia’s republics became separate countries, ethnicities fought to redefine boundaries 1 Monday, November 2, 2015 How is ethnic - Documenting Ethnic Cleansing cleansing • Aerial-photography used to prove ethnic cleansing by documented? the Serbs in former Yugoslavia. Later used to prosecute Serb leaders for war crimes. • Three photographs of Glodane (village in western Kosovo) illustrated the four steps of ethnic cleansing. First photograph: Serb armored vehicles. Farm field • full of people and their vehicles. (Steps 1 and 2) • Second photograph: Same location with no people. (Step 3) • Third photograph: Buildings set on fire. (Step 4) Describe ethnic - Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia cleansing is Bosnia. • Serbs and Croats wanted to break away from Bosnia Who engaged in it? & Herzegovina and join Serbia and Croatia What was their • Serbs and Croats engaged in ethnic cleansing of purpose? What was the Bosnian Muslims in order to create ethnically result? homogenous areas in order to strengthen their cases from breaking away • 1996 Bosnia & Herzegovina split into three regions, each dominated by one ethnicity Bosnian Serbs got the most land, even though they • did not have the most people What ethnic cleansing - Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo took place in Kosovo? • Serbia took control of Kosovo with the creation of Yugoslavia in the early 20th century • Ethnic cleansing of Albanians (90% of the population) • Many countries recognize Kosovo as an independent country today - What is Balkanization? Balkanization = the process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities • considered a threat to peace • led to WWI Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide in Sub-Saharan Africa What is genocide? - genocide = the mass killings a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existence 2 Monday, November 2, 2015 - Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide in Northeastern Africa • Sudan What occured in South - South Sudan: Black Christian and animist Sudan? ethnicities resisted attempts to covert the country into one Muslim nationality. Led to civil war. Darfur? - Darfur: Black Africans rebelled because of discrimination and neglect by the national government. Black population killed or living in refugee camps because of Arab nomads (janjaweed) supported by Sudanese government Eastern Sudan? - Eastern front: ethnicities in east fought Sudanese government over dispersement of oil profits • Ethiopia and Eritrea Ethiopia and Eritrea? - Eritrea had a 30-year war to break free of Ethiopia - War broke out again because of disputes over the border and continues today Somalia • Somalia - Divided into clans - Fighting between clans • 300,000 people, mostly women and children, died from famine and warfare between clans - Islamist militias took control • Eritrea, Ethiopia, U.S. drawn into conflict • led to several hundred thousand refugees - Somalis also affected by drought 3 Monday, November 2, 2015 - Ethnic Cleansing and Genocide in Central Africa • Long-standing conflicts between Hutus and Tutsis What kind of lifestyles - Hutus were settled farmers who farmed in Rwanda did Hutus and Tutsis and Burundi have? - Tutsis were cattle herders to migrated to Rwanda and Burundi Rwanda What happened in • - Hutus murdered hundreds of thousand of Tutsis Rwanda? - Began when an airplane carrying Hutu presidents of Rwanda and Burundi was shot down Congo? • Congo - civil war - Tutsis overthrow Congo’s president Mobutu - Next president Kabila relied on Tutsis, allowed them to kill some Hutus for atrocities against Tutsis in 1990s - Kabila split from Tutsis, Tutsis again helping rebels trying to over through the government - Kabila assassinated in 2001 - Son succeeded Kabilia, negated an accord with the rebels • Colonial Legacy How did colonization - Ethnic conflict today is because present-day impact ethnic conflict boundaries were drawn by European colonies in Africa today? without regard for ethnic groups. - In Africa, tribes are more important that independent states. - When European colonies became states, they reflected the boundaries of the colonies, separating tribes and grouping dissimilar tribes together. 4 Monday, November 2, 2015 Lecture Iraq & Ethnicity/Race Iraq continued What was the 2007 - 2007 U.S. “surge” “surge”? • President Bush sent in extra troops to take back control What happened to Al • Al Qaeda going down, but not gone. Just lingering Qaeda? under the surface. - Syria gave Al Qaeda the chance to come back. - The remnants of Al Qaeda created ISIS - Many ISIS leaders are formed Al Qaeda or Bath Party generals What has happened in - 2011 U.S. combat troops leave Iraq. Leave military Iraq in recent years? advisors. How has Maliki created - 2012: Maliki uses extreme force against Sunnis Sunnis? • Maliki started sending the military to the houses of his political opponents, sending tanks down neighborhood streets. Arrested, imprisoned, tortured thousands of Sunnis - 2012/2013: Al Qaeda returns, rebrands itself as ISIS - 2015: New prime minister who is a Shiite, worried he will do the same thing—not able to heal the sectarian divide 5 Monday, November 2, 2015 How many people live - Life Under the Islamic State under ISIS? • 10 million people live under ISIS What is ISIS’ goal? • Goal: Islamic state What two branches - Succeeded on some levels: military and civilian does ISIS have? branches. Give salaries. - Civilian branches: education, health clinics, power, communications, water, food, infrastructure, welfare benefits • Very confusing — ISIS a combination of there to help and to create complete fear, terror, and obedience What happens if you • Opposition to ISIS — death oppose ISIS? • New rules to follow, Sharia Law - Very strict dress codes — modestly dressed, completely covered, no imagery What are concerns with • Foreign fighters, weapons, funding ISIS foreign fighters? - worry about what foreign fighters will do when then return home - also foreign fighters going to fight against ISIS Where does ISIS get - Most of the weapons coming from the Iraqi army most of it’s weapons? (which means they are American weapons because we gave the Iraqi army the weapons) How is ISIS funded? - Taxes everyone who lives in their control - Oil - Kidnapping for ransom - Robbing banks - ISIS is destroying ancient artifacts because they are pre-Islamic (pre-Muhammed). At the same time, ISIS is selling ancient artifacts to people on the black market and making money from it. What is Operation - Battling ISIS: Operation Inherent Resolve Inherent Resolve? • U.S. has extensive bombing campaign on ISIS targets • Some responsibility: Personally involved because our invasion of Iraq helped sow the seeds of ISIS • Progress incredibly slow • We are sending ground troops What idea could help to - Idea to redraw political lines according to ethnic groups. solve some of the What is today 5 countries could become 14. ethnic issues in the Middle East? 6 Monday, November 2, 2015 Kurds: Will Kurdistan Become a Reality? The Kurds are the - Fourth largest ethnic group in the Middle East world’s largest ethnic - World’s largest ethnic group without their own country group without ___. - Distinctive language, culture, not united through religion. How are the Kurds United through culture and language. united? - Mainly straddling Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran What is the history - Always lived under some other empire. behind Kurdistan? - Given autonomy under Ottoman Empire. - After Ottoman Empire collapses, Kurds told by Britain, France, U.S., they would get their own state. - After WWI, made a new map that included a Kurdistan. - Turks rejected that plan, said if plan was put into action, they would go to war. - Britain, France, U.S. backed off - New treaty that did not include a Kurdistan. How did Kurds face - Anfal campaign in Iraq. discrimination in the - “Arabization” in Syria. countries they lived in? • had to denounce Kurdish culture - Turkey • ethnic identities repressed • In response to government repression, in Turkey, Kurds got violent, formed the PKK. - Started attacking Turkish government in the 1980s. - Turkish military then moved into Kurdish villages and took control. - PKK is still active. - Iran: repression, armed struggle. • Also has a group fighting against repression. - Kurds in Northern Iraq are stable. Biggest problem is fighting ISIS. (Successful at fighting ISIS.) Ethnicity/Race - Ethnicity — identity with a common homeland • A spacial concept — All about places. • Talking about groups connected to a place. • Ancestors were born in a particular place. • Share a homeland, unique cultural characteristics. - Race — identity with a common biological • focus on physical characteristics — skin color 7 Monday, November 2, 2015 What has is the U.S.’s - U.S. History with Ethnic/Racial Harmony history with ethnic/ • Slavery racial harmony? • 1860s: no one should be denied the right to vote based on race. But states could set their own requirements to vote. • Chinese Exclusion Act: 1882 federal law that limited entry into the US based on race/ethnicity. Deliberately targeted Chinese. • Jim Crow Laws — series of laws that made it legal for Whites to discriminate. “Separate but equal.” - Problem: always separate but never equal - Jim Crow laws harshest in the U.S. - Segregation Patterns in U.S. Cities • 2010 Census — by 2040, 2050 white population will go down because other groups are coming in. • San Francisco — Asian and White populations mixed quite well. Black and Hispanic populations more clustered. Less segregated over time especially in terms of White and Asian populations. • Los Angeles — becoming more segregated over time. What is white flight? White Flight • - happened all over the country, but more in the East. - Detroit: all whites left the city, moved to suburbs. Now a black population in the city - In 1950s and 1960s white populations left the city because they didn’t want to send their kids to desegregated schools. - When whites left the city, took their tax money with them. How did blockbusting • Blockbusting impacted segregation and made a impact segregation? neighborhood shift from white to black - When real estate agents would stir up fear among whites, they would leave What was redlining? • Redlining — banks would draw red lines around areas, not give blacks loans to buy houses in that area • Cost of living • Social issues 8 Monday, November 2, 2015 - Racial Bias & Police Brutality: Ferguson • August 2014: Unarmed 18 year old Michael Brown shot to death by white police officer • Ferguson is 2/3rds black, only 3/55 police officers are black • Ferguson police did not release name of officer, did not say is was excessive force • Protests started after Officer Wilson was found innocent of criminal charges and released Investigations of police brutality and excessive force • Videos: Race Relations - A Conversation with White People on Race • Hard, uncomfortable to talk about race - A Conversation about Growing Up Black • White people cross the street to avoid blacks Police confront blacks • • Feel like their being hunted by the police who are supposed to be protecting them • Told racism is inevitable 9 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 Exam #2 on Monday, Nov. 11 Four of Six Essays: 1) China — Xinjiang/Tibet, Han 2) Nigeria, Boko Haram 3) Israel/Palestine 4) Iraq — both ethnic and sectarian problems 5) Rwanda 6) Sri Lanka Multiple choice questions on videos on ISIS — review the videos on PolyLearn No questions on Michael Brown, Ferguson Question on: When did you realize there were different races? Lecture Ethnic Conflicts Sri Lanka’s Violent Civil War What are the ethnic and - Ethnic, religious differences religious differences in • Tamil Hindus — primarily in Northern Sri Lanka Sri Lanka? • Sinhalese Buddhists — majority • Both groups have been on the island for over 2,000 years. Not wars until Europeans got there. • Muslim Moors — not really part of the situation • Focus on Tamils and Sinhalese. 10 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 How did colonization - Colonial rule in Sri Lanka impact the ethnic • Portuguese first to get to Sri Lanka issues in Sri Lanka? • Dutch • British are there in the 1700s • Colonial powers interested in colonizing Sri Lanka: - it was a great stopping point between Europe and East Asia - Great tropical climate for tropical crops. • Set up tea, coffee, rubber plantations • Needed a well-educated population to run the plantations. • British favored the Tamils — put them in charge because they tended to be better educated. - Tamils spoke English. British missionaries set up schools, gave Tamils more education. - British trusted the Tamils because they knew the Tamils in India. - Tamils in better positions, had more power, more social mobility under the British. - Even today the Tamils have the better jobs, are making more money than the Sinhalese. Sinhalese are struggling to catch up. What happened when - In 1948, Sri Lanka gains independence. Sinhalese took Sri Lanka gained over. independence? • Discriminated against Tamils: lose the recognition of their language, religion. Tamils denied right to vote. • Tamils feel marginalized from the government Tamils form rebel militia: Tamil Tigers • - Tamil Tigers wanted to set up their own Tamil state - Tamil Tigers started attacking the government - One third women - One of the best terrorist groups in the world - First to use suicide bombers - Assassinated politicians How did the - Government fights back —> 26 year long war government respond? • Tamils getting funded from places outside the country • 80,000 deaths • Tourism came to a halt • No one wins, everyone loses How did the war end? - War ends in 2009. Army cornered Tamil Tigers in the Northeast. Tamil Tigers hiding amongst civilians. Civilians caught in battle zones. Government bombs civilians. Tamil Tigers using civilians as human shields. - Government kills Tamil leader, war is officially over. - During the war, human rights violations taken by both sides. Child soldiers. Gov’t bombs schools, hospitals. - 11 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 - Sri Lanka is healing. • Human rights violations need to be acknowledged & compensated, Tamil areas need reconstruction, rehabilitation of child soldiers Rwanda Describe the ethnic - Two ethnic groups: Hutus (85%), Tutsis (15%). makeup, history of - Organized attempt by the Hutus to completely eliminate ethnic conflict and the Tutsis from the country. genocide in Rwanda. - Fastest killing spree in the 20th/21st century. - Germans led to believe the Tutsis were better • Hutus have slightly darker skin • Tutsis have slightly lighter skin - Germans set up a system favoring the Tutsis - After WWI, Germans lose land in Rwanda. Given to Belgians. - Belgians colonial policies the same, favored Tutsis. Forced to carry ID cards. - 1950s Hutu riots against Belgians (& Tutsis) because they see other African countries gaining independence • Led to civil war - 20,000 Tutsis killed - 200,000 flee to Uganda - 1962: • Hutus take power, reverse discrimination. Hutus at the top, Tutsis at the bottom. • Back and forth violence between Hutus in the government and Tutsis that are still there - Late 1980s: Children of Tutsi refugees who fled to Uganda form rebel group • Rebel group called Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) • Been out of the country for 20 years. Are armed and angry • UN negotiates peace treaty • 1993 UN learns that the Hutu is starting to collect weapons. UN knew big attack was coming • UN said do nothing. Only there to monitor the peace deal. Huge mistake. 12 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 - 1994: Rwandan presidential plane shot down • Tutsis blamed so Hutus took revenge: genocide began. • Radio broadcasts critical to genocide - told Tutsis where to go to schools and churches for protection — killed once they got there - told Hutus to kill, rape, destroy Tutsis. Hutu government gave incentives if you killed more people. - Rape: ultimate shame. Women were raped by HIV positive soldiers. Had babies of their enemy. - UN left Rwandans to fight “civil war” - UN debated whether or not it was genocide - Once UN decided they needed to do something, couldn’t get the troops and weapons because no one wanted to send anyone in. - Genocide ends because RPF seized capital city of Kigali and takes power. - Formed Gacaca courts: community trials. Only community members and the people who committed crimes. Sped the process of getting criminals through trial. Gave Rwandans some closure. 13 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 Sudan’s Civil Wars: Deadly & Ongoing What are the ethnic - North: Muslim Arabs groups in Sudan and - South: Black Christians where do they live? - West: Black Muslims What group gets the - 1956: Sudan gains independence. Give power to Arab power when Sudan Muslims in North. Believed Arab Muslims would share gains independence? power. - North ends up sharing no power. - Sudan is loaded with oil, but that oil is in the South. What caused the two - 1st Civil War: Northern army defeats Southern rebels. civil wars in Sudan? - Peace deal where North promises they are going to share the power, send oil revenue to South. - 2nd Civil War: because North is not sharing power or building infrastructure. “Islamicization” program on Christians in south. • Southerners form rebel groups, much better equipped. • Government heavy-handed on south. Who are the “Lost “Lost Boys” • Boys?” - Tens of thousands of kids separated from families, had to leave south Sudan. - 30,000 kids walked out of South Sudan and into Ethiopia then into Kenya. - Many died. - Mostly boys escaped because they weren’t home in the villages when bombs were dropped. • Girls were home doing cooking, chores. Boys were herding animals. - 2001: Relocation of ~3,000 Lost Boys to U.S. - 2005: War ends with plans for vote on independence in 2011 - Southern Sudanese voted in 2011 and gained independence South Sudan: Independent, but Still Fighting What is going on in - Leadership of this new nation is fighting each other South Sudan? - President and Vice President are of two different ethnic groups • Strictly divided by ethnic lines • Ethnic groups started accusing each other of corruption, abusing power - Could be settled if both militias put their guns down. 14 Wednesday, November 4, 2015 Sudan: War in Darfur Why did rebels in - West (Darfur) has the same lack of investment as the Darfur start to attack South the Sudanese - 2003 rebels in Darfur started attacking the government government? - Government sent in the Janjaweed (Arab Muslim How did the nomads hired as mercenary soldiers) government respond? • Paid to kill the blacks in Darfur. - Definitely a genocide because it’s targeted ethnic cleansing: Arab trying to eliminate Black Myanmar - Two names: Myanmar and Burma • Called Burma by the British Military dictatorship renamed it Myanmar to • incorporate all ethnicities, not just the Burman - Very complicated in terms of ethnic groups What ethnic group is - Very repressive Buddhist government the government? What - Majority Buddhist. Muslims and Christians repressed. group is the majority? - Military coup came into power and never left - Student protests, harsh military response What happened to - Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest Aung San Suu Kyi? - 1990 election results rejected by army • Trade and foreign investment cut except for China - • 2010 decided to open society (realized they could benefit from foreign trade and investment) • release Suu Kyi from house arrest - Military rewrote constitution to keep Suu Kyi from being president Who is repressed - Muslims repressed most most? • Government has put them in concentration camps, can’t vote, run for office, go to school - Fundamentalism - 2015 elections? Ethnic/religious divide remains. 15


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