Nonverbal Communication Psychology of communication
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aashika Kushwaha on Thursday November 5, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology of communication at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Hanna Ulatowska in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Learning and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 11/05/15
Psych Ch 8 Non verbal Code Nonverbal communication involves no words Only has gestures and expressions Paralanguage is the use of voice refers to vocal character and emotional state personal space or proxemics to express level of intimacy and power armslength Psychoogists believe that human language evolved from a system of nonverbal communication Through smell called olfactics a person s ethnicity social class and status ar4e communicated norms are set by each culture through scents of each person shampoo oil deodorant natural body odor etc Denotive meaning correct grammarsyntax in verbal code when we don t understand what someone is saying we can go to a dictionary to look up the meaning There is no dictionary for nonverbal language Kinesics or body movement including hand gestures facial expressions etc Kinesics behavior is organized into ve broad categories Emblems Illustrators Affect Displays Regulators Adaptors U39lbUUNH Emblems primarily hand gestures not exclusively that have a direct literal verbal translation Ex Smiling and waving at someone lllustrators typically hand and arm movements that accompany speech or function to accent or complement that is being said Ex Folding hands and saying quotNamastequot Affect Displaygare universal They are nonverbal presentations of emotions through facial expressions 2000 to 3000 of them have to do with emotion Every expression exists in each culture although there may be different meanings for certain facial expressions in certain cultures Ex Snarls and gritting teeth show the facial expression of anger Although showing teeth isn t always necessary Primary emotions are surprise fear anger disgust happiness and sadness which are all universal facial expressions are evolutionarily and biologically inherited rate of intensity of an emotion is scaled from 1 to 8 Regulators behaviors and actions that govern direct or manage conversation Ex Direct eye contact and nodding typically means that you agree Arabs hold hands to display trust Middle Eastern people smell each other s breath to to show that they desire each other Adaptors kinesics actions that satisfy physiological or psychological needs Ex Scratching an itch satis es a physiological need whereas tapping the tip of you pen on the desk while waiting for the professor to deliver a nal exam satis es a psychological need not learned but may vary cross culturally Occulesicsstudy of eye contact Eye contact is one of the most dynamic forms of nonverbal behavior and is an essential biological skill necessary for effective social interactions visua processes including attraction to the eye region of the face are not only innate in human but in animals as well eye contact and emotion are closely related with approachavoidance tendencies There are different meanings of eye contact interculturally Ex Direct eye contact in China is considered rude while in America showing eye contact means that you are paying attention and is part of good manners Paralanguage qualities that useually accompy speech such as rhythm tone pace etc Vowels help create and connect vocal sounds Consonants function to stop and start a sound Some languages called tonal languages rely on vocalized tones to communicate meaning such as Modern Vietnamese Vocal attraction appealing sounds in speech also involves sex differences Unattractive voices sounds that can be squeaky nasal monotone etc 0 Can hear diffrences in paralanguages region to region interms of pronunciation and vocal pitch of the people or their accents Speakers of the same language have similar accents Similar accents among people of the same region are the paralinguistic component combines with the phonological and intonation features of the spoken word Proxemics refers to the perception and use of space including territoriality and personal space Territoriaity refers to physical geographical space personal space refers to perceptual or psychological space known as to most as the quotbubblequot Americans are very protective of their space Indians and other places where there is high pop density personal space is valued however hard to nd Privacy in high density places is more psychological rather than physiological there just isn t enough space for so many people so the only privacy you get sometimes is in your head Haptics Skin is the biggest organ 0 f the human body which not only surrounds the body but also separtes it from the environment Skin represents a social organ through which humans are able to get in touch with and get close to other human beings Haptics or tactile communication refers to the use of touch most primitive form of communication US Notrthern Europe India Southeast Asia moderate contact culture South and Central American countries are touch cultures Korean Puerto Ricans Southern Europe low touch cultures Olfactics sense of smell humans and other mammalians have the most olfactory genes Humans can detect odors but are even more adept at producing odors most scented of all are the apes Two types of glands below our skin sebaceous and apocrine glands Sebacious glands oil glands mostly near hair follicles for protection Apocrine glands located in more dense areas such as armpits but also found I n pubic and anal regions the face scalp umbilical region Women have more apocrine glands than men Human saliva and urine also produce scent most sensitive to odors is during ovulation organ secretions function as odor cues to stimulate their menstrual cycles Scents categorize groups of people into status ower classes tend to be more smelly this is how we label racially ethnically and religiously Microcultures are characterized as possessing negative olfactory characteristics Physical Appearance and Dress can identify one s culture by physical appearance and their traditional clothing women dress differently in other cultures jewelry no jewelry Chronemics nonverba channel of time monochromicpolychromic IndividualismCollectivism Power Distance HighLow Context Nonverbal Expectancy violations Theory people hold expectancies about the appropriateness of the nonverbal behaviors of others such as expecting to shake someone s hand when you meet them Fundamental Assumptions of NEV Theory pg 317