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Differentiated Instruction and Mastery Teaching

by: Thomas nelson

Differentiated Instruction and Mastery Teaching EDU 2100

Marketplace > High Point University > Education and Teacher Studies > EDU 2100 > Differentiated Instruction and Mastery Teaching
Thomas nelson

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Nature of the Learner
Dr. Sarah Vess
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.

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Date Created: 11/06/15
Thomas Nelson            11/3/15  Learning Community – A group of individuals focused on increasing the academic,  personal, and social development of the community members o Students feel supported and safe enough to ask difficult questions, make mistakes, and work toward developing knowledge and skills o Learning communities lead to higher levels of student learning  Developing a learning community requires o Time o Small numbers  o Committed teachers  Strategies to increase effectiveness of learning communities o Strengthen the connection between teacher and students o Strengthen the connection between students o Offer class­wide and school­wide learning opportunities o Emphasize academic instruction  National Education Association reported that modern classrooms need to be learning  centered  Learning­Centered Classroom Management – Changing the nature of discipline from  control to encouraging student self­regulation and community responsibility  Teachers make many decision that effect success of class o How they use class time  Very important for teachers to increase amount of time students spend  actually doing work (Allocated Time vs. Engaged Time) o Quality of curriculum  Busy work isn’t productive, teachers should have an interesting and well­ planned curriculum  An engaging curriculum will prevent inattention and misbehavior o Designing and organizing physical space  The environment of the classroom (classroom climate) is important to  learning and motivation of students  6 principles for arranging classrooms  Make sure you can see all students  Make sure all students can easily see and participate  Organize classroom so community resources are easily accessible  Arrange seating areas and working surfaces so there are clear and  wide pathways that allow easy movement through classroom  Have classroom arranged so students can easily work in small  groups  Try to create a space that doesn’t cause unnecessary distractions o Creating classroom rules  Rules are important in educational systems because they allow for  expansion of personal freedoms while counterbalanced by necessity of not intruding on others’ rights  There should be consistency between school rules and classrooms rules to  make sure that certain behaviors are acceptable in one setting of school,  but not in another  Rules should be  Rational  Clearly articulated and positively communicated  Be positively worded – What they should do instead of what they  should not do  Equitable – Students are treated equally  Few in number  Specifically taught  Prominently displayed  Consistently employed  Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (CRCM) – An approach to classroom  management that fosters a supportive classroom environment that values the culture of  the students and teacher and uses those cultures in the selection of management strategies o 5 components critical to teachers using CRCM methods  Recognition of Ethnocentrism (recognition and valuing one’s culture)  To be a teacher who possesses multicultural proficiency, one must  first recognize oneself as having a culture  Knowledge of Students’ Culture  Individualistic Cultures – Cultures that focus on the self and value  personal goals, independence, and achievement  Collectivist Cultures – Cultures that give priority to the wants of  the group over the self and tend to value group harmony  While teachers need to understand and respect differences in  cultures, it is also important to see similarities  Be aware of norms and values without stereotyping students   Understanding the Broader Context   When a student’s culture differs from the dominant culture, most  likely the student’s attitude, beliefs, and behavior will as well  Organization and practices of public schools have been heavily  influenced by dominant culture in settings, which could cause  institutional discrimination  Use of Culturally Appropriate Management Strategies  When making classroom management decisions, you consider  insights about your own culture and students’ cultures when you  reflect about types of questions you might ask   Commitment to Caring Classrooms  Students’ decisions to do his/her work or not is determined by if  the teacher cares  Type of caring most effective is “strong yet compassionate,  authoritative yet loving, firm yet respectful”  3 different models that may inform your thinking about classroom management o Kounin Approach  Kounin studied the practices of teachers who could increase the  engagement of learners vs. teachers who struggled to gain and maintain  student attention  Effective learning environments planned in advance & proactive better  than reactive  Developed four behaviors from these observations that help teachers to be  effective   Withitness – Teacher is keenly aware at all times of what goes on  in the classroom  Overlapping – Teacher monitors and supervises two or more  activities at one time  Maintaining smoothness and momentum – Teacher transitions  students between activities or locations without sudden breaks;  harmonious transitions o Don’t be stimulus­bound (difficulty maintaining the focus  of an activity and responds to every new stimulus) o Takes time away from important learning goals to pay  attention to an irrelevant stimulus o Thrust – Suddenly interrupting a child’s activity with a  statement, request, direction, correction without preparing  the child for the interruption o Dangle – Involved in an activity, stops it for a brief time to  do something else, then returns to the initial activity o Truncation – Same as dangle but teacher never returns to  original activity o Momentum – Maintaining an appropriate pace during  learning activities o Overdwelling – Too much time spent dealing with  materials of activity instead of activity or focusing on an  issue for a longer time than necessary  Maintaining group focus – Group alerting and accountability o Group alerting – Technique where the teacher asks a  question of the whole class, then calls on a student at  random to answer the question o Tips – Create suspense, don’t let children know who will  be called on next, ensure all children participate not just the same ones always, ask additional children to elaborate on  thoughts after 1st child answers, choral response o Accountability – Expecting that all learners are able to  explain their ideas (correct answer + logic behind it) o Behavior Modification Approach  o Assertive Discipline Approach  Students have a “right to learn” and a right to have a classroom free from  behavior disruptive to their learning  Teachers must have four competencies to promote a positive learning  environment   Observable classroom rules that clarify the behaviors vital for  success in the classroom  Consistently respond to appropriate behaviors → Catch them  succeeding and being good  Respond without bias when students disrupt their own learning and learning of others  Work with families and administrators to gain support, help, and  expertise when needed  Teacher’s response style sets the tone of the environment—three possible  styles   Nonassertive response style – Passive approach, teacher not clear  about expectations, inconsistent in responding to good and bad  behavior, students often confused about expectations  Hostile Response Style – Teacher interested in controlling students instead of helping them learn strategies to regulate their own  behavior, authoritarian and inflexible  Assertive Response Style – Students are aware of teacher’s  expectations for behavior, students understand consequences,  teacher viewed as secure and fair  Classroom Discipline Plan – Indicating to students what is necessary to  create a positive learning environment  Positive Recognition – Students’ ability to gain the teacher’s attention by  behaving appropriately   Instructional goals o Often provided to teachers in form of curriculum o Goals could be classified into different types of learning outcomes in Gagne’s  theory o Goals can also be divided by other classification systems o Very common system is Bloom’s Taxnonomy  Bloom’s Taxonomy – Classification system of categories of cognitive domain organized  into levels o Introduced in 1956 and revised in 2001 by Anderson and Krathwohl o Helps teachers to  Define ambiguous terms so they can speak common language with each  other  Identify goals to include in their own instruction  Identify extension directions  Plan learning experiences  Prepare ways to measure learning  Knowledge → Comprehension → Application → Analysis → Synthesis → Evaluation  (Bloom’s)  Remember → Understand → Apply → Analyze → Evaluate → Create (Bloom’s Revised)  Learning Objective – Clear­cut statement that says exactly what you want students to be  able to do as a result of instruction; Typically written as action statement with action verb  Mastery Learning/Teaching Model – Providing as much instructional time and instruction as needed for each student to achieve mastery on each task before moving on o Based on an approach to school learning by Bloom in 1976 and is variation of  individualized instruction o Also based on Carroll’s (1963) Theory  How much time and instruction student needs to learn  If opportunity to learn and quality of instruction is sufficient to meet  student’s needs  Different students will require different amounts of instructional time  Different from expectation that group moves at the same rate  Learning is sequential  3 key approaches to accomplishing mastery­oriented classroom environment o Promoting learning as an active process o Demonstrating enthusiasm for learning o Developing positive teacher­student relationship


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