Differentiated Instruction and Mastery Teaching
Differentiated Instruction and Mastery Teaching EDU 2100
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Thomas Nelson 11/3/15 Learning Community – A group of individuals focused on increasing the academic, personal, and social development of the community members o Students feel supported and safe enough to ask difficult questions, make mistakes, and work toward developing knowledge and skills o Learning communities lead to higher levels of student learning Developing a learning community requires o Time o Small numbers o Committed teachers Strategies to increase effectiveness of learning communities o Strengthen the connection between teacher and students o Strengthen the connection between students o Offer classwide and schoolwide learning opportunities o Emphasize academic instruction National Education Association reported that modern classrooms need to be learning centered LearningCentered Classroom Management – Changing the nature of discipline from control to encouraging student selfregulation and community responsibility Teachers make many decision that effect success of class o How they use class time Very important for teachers to increase amount of time students spend actually doing work (Allocated Time vs. Engaged Time) o Quality of curriculum Busy work isn’t productive, teachers should have an interesting and well planned curriculum An engaging curriculum will prevent inattention and misbehavior o Designing and organizing physical space The environment of the classroom (classroom climate) is important to learning and motivation of students 6 principles for arranging classrooms Make sure you can see all students Make sure all students can easily see and participate Organize classroom so community resources are easily accessible Arrange seating areas and working surfaces so there are clear and wide pathways that allow easy movement through classroom Have classroom arranged so students can easily work in small groups Try to create a space that doesn’t cause unnecessary distractions o Creating classroom rules Rules are important in educational systems because they allow for expansion of personal freedoms while counterbalanced by necessity of not intruding on others’ rights There should be consistency between school rules and classrooms rules to make sure that certain behaviors are acceptable in one setting of school, but not in another Rules should be Rational Clearly articulated and positively communicated Be positively worded – What they should do instead of what they should not do Equitable – Students are treated equally Few in number Specifically taught Prominently displayed Consistently employed Culturally Responsive Classroom Management (CRCM) – An approach to classroom management that fosters a supportive classroom environment that values the culture of the students and teacher and uses those cultures in the selection of management strategies o 5 components critical to teachers using CRCM methods Recognition of Ethnocentrism (recognition and valuing one’s culture) To be a teacher who possesses multicultural proficiency, one must first recognize oneself as having a culture Knowledge of Students’ Culture Individualistic Cultures – Cultures that focus on the self and value personal goals, independence, and achievement Collectivist Cultures – Cultures that give priority to the wants of the group over the self and tend to value group harmony While teachers need to understand and respect differences in cultures, it is also important to see similarities Be aware of norms and values without stereotyping students Understanding the Broader Context When a student’s culture differs from the dominant culture, most likely the student’s attitude, beliefs, and behavior will as well Organization and practices of public schools have been heavily influenced by dominant culture in settings, which could cause institutional discrimination Use of Culturally Appropriate Management Strategies When making classroom management decisions, you consider insights about your own culture and students’ cultures when you reflect about types of questions you might ask Commitment to Caring Classrooms Students’ decisions to do his/her work or not is determined by if the teacher cares Type of caring most effective is “strong yet compassionate, authoritative yet loving, firm yet respectful” 3 different models that may inform your thinking about classroom management o Kounin Approach Kounin studied the practices of teachers who could increase the engagement of learners vs. teachers who struggled to gain and maintain student attention Effective learning environments planned in advance & proactive better than reactive Developed four behaviors from these observations that help teachers to be effective Withitness – Teacher is keenly aware at all times of what goes on in the classroom Overlapping – Teacher monitors and supervises two or more activities at one time Maintaining smoothness and momentum – Teacher transitions students between activities or locations without sudden breaks; harmonious transitions o Don’t be stimulusbound (difficulty maintaining the focus of an activity and responds to every new stimulus) o Takes time away from important learning goals to pay attention to an irrelevant stimulus o Thrust – Suddenly interrupting a child’s activity with a statement, request, direction, correction without preparing the child for the interruption o Dangle – Involved in an activity, stops it for a brief time to do something else, then returns to the initial activity o Truncation – Same as dangle but teacher never returns to original activity o Momentum – Maintaining an appropriate pace during learning activities o Overdwelling – Too much time spent dealing with materials of activity instead of activity or focusing on an issue for a longer time than necessary Maintaining group focus – Group alerting and accountability o Group alerting – Technique where the teacher asks a question of the whole class, then calls on a student at random to answer the question o Tips – Create suspense, don’t let children know who will be called on next, ensure all children participate not just the same ones always, ask additional children to elaborate on thoughts after 1st child answers, choral response o Accountability – Expecting that all learners are able to explain their ideas (correct answer + logic behind it) o Behavior Modification Approach o Assertive Discipline Approach Students have a “right to learn” and a right to have a classroom free from behavior disruptive to their learning Teachers must have four competencies to promote a positive learning environment Observable classroom rules that clarify the behaviors vital for success in the classroom Consistently respond to appropriate behaviors → Catch them succeeding and being good Respond without bias when students disrupt their own learning and learning of others Work with families and administrators to gain support, help, and expertise when needed Teacher’s response style sets the tone of the environment—three possible styles Nonassertive response style – Passive approach, teacher not clear about expectations, inconsistent in responding to good and bad behavior, students often confused about expectations Hostile Response Style – Teacher interested in controlling students instead of helping them learn strategies to regulate their own behavior, authoritarian and inflexible Assertive Response Style – Students are aware of teacher’s expectations for behavior, students understand consequences, teacher viewed as secure and fair Classroom Discipline Plan – Indicating to students what is necessary to create a positive learning environment Positive Recognition – Students’ ability to gain the teacher’s attention by behaving appropriately Instructional goals o Often provided to teachers in form of curriculum o Goals could be classified into different types of learning outcomes in Gagne’s theory o Goals can also be divided by other classification systems o Very common system is Bloom’s Taxnonomy Bloom’s Taxonomy – Classification system of categories of cognitive domain organized into levels o Introduced in 1956 and revised in 2001 by Anderson and Krathwohl o Helps teachers to Define ambiguous terms so they can speak common language with each other Identify goals to include in their own instruction Identify extension directions Plan learning experiences Prepare ways to measure learning Knowledge → Comprehension → Application → Analysis → Synthesis → Evaluation (Bloom’s) Remember → Understand → Apply → Analyze → Evaluate → Create (Bloom’s Revised) Learning Objective – Clearcut statement that says exactly what you want students to be able to do as a result of instruction; Typically written as action statement with action verb Mastery Learning/Teaching Model – Providing as much instructional time and instruction as needed for each student to achieve mastery on each task before moving on o Based on an approach to school learning by Bloom in 1976 and is variation of individualized instruction o Also based on Carroll’s (1963) Theory How much time and instruction student needs to learn If opportunity to learn and quality of instruction is sufficient to meet student’s needs Different students will require different amounts of instructional time Different from expectation that group moves at the same rate Learning is sequential 3 key approaches to accomplishing masteryoriented classroom environment o Promoting learning as an active process o Demonstrating enthusiasm for learning o Developing positive teacherstudent relationship