Chapter 10 PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Popular in INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katlyn Burkitt on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at Towson University taught by Dr. Girio-Herrera in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychlogy at Towson University.
Reviews for Chapter 10
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 11/06/15
Social Influence: Social pressures that serve to modify our thoughts and/or behavior Social psychology: The branch of psychology that studies how we think and behave in social situations Social Cognition: The area of social psychology that deals with the ways in which we think about other people and ourselves Attitude: An evaluative belief we hold about something Cognitive Consistency: The idea that we strive to have attitudes and behaviors that do not contradict each other AttitudeBehavior consistency: When our attitudes and behaviors match each other Dissonance Theory; A theory that predicts that we will be motivated to change our attitudes and/or our behaviors to the extent that they make us feel uncomfortable physically Persuasion: A type of social influence in which someone tries to change our attitudes Central route to persuasion: The style of thinking where a person carefully and critically evaluates persuasive arguments and generates counterarguments, the central route requires motivation and available cognitive resources Peripheral route to persuasion: The style of thinking in which the person does not carefully and critically evaluate persuasive arguments or generate counterarguments, this route exists when one lacks motivation and/or available cognitive resources Impression Formation: The way that we understand and make judgments about others Attribution: The act of assigning cause to behavior Trait attribution: An attribution that assigns the cause of a behavior to the traits and characteristics of the person being judged Situational attribution: An attribution that assigns the cause of a behavior to some characteristics of the situation or environment in which behavior occurs Fundamental attribution error: Our tendency to overuse trait information when making attributions about others Individualistic culture: a culture, like many Western cultures in which individuals accomplishments are valued over group accomplishments Collectivistic culture: a culture, like many asian cultures where group accomplishments are valued over individual accomplishments Actor/Observer bias: Our tendency to make the fundamental attribution error when judging others, while being less likely to do so when making attributions about ourselves Selfserving bias: Our tendency to make attributions that preserve our own selfesteem, for example, making trait attributions for our successes and situational attribution for our failures. Stereotype: A schema for a particular group of people Prejudice: a mostly negative stereotype that is unfairly applied to all members of a group, then is paired with a negative affect or emotional reaction to all people in the group Stereotype threat: People who are stigmatized are very aware of it, which affects their selfesteem, may blame negative feedback on the prejudice to protect yourself, however attributing positive feedback to reverse discrimination reduces benefits to selfesteem. ● They may devalue education to avoid their prejudice feelings Steele and Aronson: Black and white students take a test, when there was no stereotype threat the white and black students had no difference in their abilities, but when stereotype threat was present the whites outscored the blacks. Ingroup bias: Our tendency to favor people who belong to the same groups that we do Outgroup bias: our tendency to see outgroup members as being pretty much all alike Realisticconflict theory: The theory that prejudice stems from competition for scarce resources The robbers Cave study: Two groups of 11 year old boys were eagles and rattlers competing for prizes and it turned into a full scale war between the children How to reduce prejudice: We must be honest and vulnerable to admit that it happens, cooperative contact hypothesis: Groups work together on a common task. Scapegoat: an outgroup that is blamed for most of society's problems Contact hypothesis: The theory that contact between groups is an effective means of reducing prejudice between them Superordinate goal: A goal that is shared by different groups, but cannot accomplish the goal without the other group Proximity: Physical closeness Matching hypothesis: The theory that we are attracted to people whose level of physical attractiveness is similar to our own Norm: Unwritten rule or expectation for how group members should behave Cohesiveness: The degree to which members of a group value their group membership; cohesive groups are in tightknit groups Conformity: Behaving in accordance with group norms Normative conformity: Conformity that occurs when group members change their behavior to meet group norms but are not persuaded to change their beliefs and attitudes Informational Conformity: Conformity that occurs when conformity pressures actually persuade group members to adopt new beliefs or attitudes Social facilitation: Performing better on a task in the presence of others than you would if you were alone Social loafing: When group members exert less effort on a group task than they would if they were performing the task alone Groupthink: A situation in which a group fixates on one decision and members blindly assume that it is the correct decision Obedience: Yielding to a demand Compliance: Yielding to a simple request Footinthedoor compliance: Increasing compliance by first asking people to give in to a small request which then paves the way for compliance with a second larger request Doorinface compliance: Increasing compliance by first asking people to give in to a very large request and then after they refuse asking them to give into a smaller request Reciprocity: A strong norm that states we should treat others as we wish to be treated Lowballing: Increasing compliance by first getting the person to agreer to a deal and then change the terms of the deal to favor yourself That’snotall: Increasing compliance by sweetening the deal with additional incentives Destructive obedience: Obedience to immoral, unethical demands that cause harm to others Slippery slope: The use of footinthedoor compliance in an obedience situation to get people to obey increasing demands Psychological distance: The degree to which one can disassociate oneself from the consequences of their actions Instrumental aggression: Aggression that is used to facilitate the attainment of a goal Hostile aggression: Aggression that is meant to cause harm to others Cognitive neoassociation theory: Proposes that cues present during an aggressive event can become associated in memory with the thoughts and emotions experienced during that event Frustrationaggression hypothesis: The idea that frustration causes aggressive behavior Prosocial behavior: Behavior that helps others Altruism or Helping behavior : Helping another without being motivated by selfgain Bystander effect: The idea that the more witnesses there are to an emergency the less likely one of them is to help Diffusion of responsibility: The idea that responsibility for taking action is diffused across all the people witnessing an event Pluralistic ignorance: The idea that we use the behavior of others to help us determine whether a situation is an emergency requiring our help, if no one else is helping then we may decide not help is needed