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Chapter 5: Sensation & Perception

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by: Rachel Kasashima

Chapter 5: Sensation & Perception PSY 201

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 201 > Chapter 5 Sensation Perception
Rachel Kasashima
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Mind and Brain >3
Dassonville P
Class Notes
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Haley Campbell

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
CHAPTER 5: SENSATION & PERCEPTION • Sensation: initial coding of information from the senses ⿞ex. Loud noise, yellow blur, fast motion, wind in face, exhaust smell ⿞Gathering of information from the environment (sensory stimuli) • Perception: brain's interpretation of those messages ⿞ex. Taxi blaring its horn as it narrowly misses you (representation of what happened) ⿞Transformation into a virtual world in the mind (mental representation) • The Senses ⿞What senses do we have? ‣ Vision (sight) ‣ Audition (hearing) ‣ Somatosensation (touch) ‣ Olfaction (smell) ‣ Gustation ("taste") ‣ Kinesthesis (moving body awareness); proprioception (still body awareness) ‣ Vestibular sense (balance) ⿞What is it that we sense? ‣ Light waves (sight) ‣ Vibrations in the air (hearing) ‣ Deformation/temperature/pain of skin (touch) ‣ Chemicals in the air we breathe (smell) ‣ Chemicals in the food we eat ("taste") ‣ Muscle stretch & joint angles (kinesthesis; body awareness) ‣ Gravity & motion (balance) ⿞Somatosensation ‣ Sensory transduction: Process of converting energy (information) in the environment into energy (information) in the nervous system; accomplished by specialized neurons (sensory receptors) ‣ Sensory coding: Translation of physical properties of stimulus into patterns of neural activity (action potentials) • Doctrine of specific nerve energies ⿞Sensory Thresholds ‣ Psychometric function ‣ Absolute Threshold: Smallest amount of energy needed to detect a stimulus ‣ Difference Threshold: Smallest detectable difference (the just noticeable difference, jnd) between two stimuli ‣ Weber's Law: The jnd is proportional to the magnitude of the original stimulus (ex. larger stimulus leads to larger jnd) ⿞"Taste" = gustation + olfaction + vision + mouth feel ⿞Doctrine of specific nerve energies vs. rate law ⿞Vision ‣ The Retina • Photoreceptors are sensitive to light ⿞The Photoreceptors: Rods and Cones ‣ Photopigment (Rhodopsin) ‣ Opsin + retinal ‣ Rods • 120 million (more rods than cones) • Has a high sensitivity to dim light • No sensitivity to color • Low sensitivity to fine detail • Primarily located in periphery ‣ Cones • 6 million • Low sensitivity to dim light • Sensitivity to color • High sensitivity to find detail • Primary location in the fovea ⿞Fovea: Area in the center of the retina with high density of cones, and overlying cell layers pulled aside, to provide high- resolution images of the central part of the visual scene ⿞Blind spot: Area of retina in which the ganglion cell axons depart the eye along the optic nerve, crowding out any photoreceptors. ‣ Light (The Electromagnetic Spectrum) • Gamma rays, X rays, Ultra-violet rays, [VISUAL SPECTRUM (white light)], Infra-red rays, Radar, TV/FM radio, Short wave, AM radio, AC circuits • Color does not exist in the physical world. It only exists in our mind • Color Dimensions ⿞Hue=wavelength ‣ Longer wavelength=violet, shorter wavelength=red ⿞Brightness=amplitude ⿞Saturation=purity ‣ Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision • Three cone types that are sensitive to different parts of the spectrum ⿞Perception of color is dependent on the relative activations of the three types of cones. • Additive colors ⿞Red+Green=Yellow; Green+Blue=Cyan; Blue+Red=Magenta; All colors mixed together=white • Subtractive Colors ⿞Magenta+Yellow=Red; Yellow+Cyan=Green; Cyan +Magenta=Blue; All colors mixed together=black ‣ Opponent Process Theory of Color Vision • Retinal ganglion cells are either: ⿞excited by green/ inhibited by red ⿞excited by red/ inhibited by green ⿞excited by blue/ inhibited by yellow ⿞excited by yellow/ inhibited by blue ⿞excited by white/inhibited by black ⿞excited by black/inhibited by white • Opponent colors: ⿞red & green ⿞blue & yellow ⿞black & white • Bottom-up vs. Top-down Processing ⿞Bottom-up processing: Hierarchical sensory processing that relies only on information available in the sensory input ⿞Top-down processing: Hierarchical sensory processing that relies on prior knowledge of the properties of the objects o r events to be detected ⿞Sometimes, the brain's assumptions of how the world works can be misleading. ⿞Reversible Images (Ambiguous Figures) • Depth Cues ⿞Pictorial cues are those that can be depicted in a still picture ⿞Pictorial (Monocular) Depth Cues ‣ Occlusion (Interposition): If one object partially hides another from view, the object that is blocked is seeing as being further away. • Only provides information on relative (not absolute) depth ‣ Relative Height: Objects that are closer to the horizon in the visual field appear further away ‣ Cast Shadows: If source of light is known, the location of a shadow can provide further information of an object's location in depth ‣ 3-D Shape from Shading: Highlights and shadows are cast on an object in a way that is consistent with... • the object's shape in depth, and • the known (or assumed) sources of light ‣ Relative Size: If two objects are the same size, the one whose image takes up less of the visual field (smaller) will appear to be further away. ‣ Familiar Size: If the actual size of an object is known, its distance can be judged by the size of its visual image--a more distant object will have a smaller image. ‣ Atmospheric (Aerial) Perspective: Distant objects look less sharp than nearby objects due to the greater amount of dust, water vapor, and pollution we have to look through to see the more distant object ‣ Linear perspective: Lines that are actually parallel will converge in the image as distance increases ‣ Texture gradient: Elements that are equally spaced will appear to be packed closer and closer together as distance increases ⿞Oculomotor cues are based on our ability to sense the position of our eyes and the tension in our eye muscles ‣ convergence: eyes must "converge" to see nearby objects ‣ accommodation: lens changes shape to focus the image ⿞Movement-produced cues are created by movement of the observer or by movement of the objects in the environment ‣ Motion parallax: Nearby objects move across the visual image faster than more distant ones ‣ Structure from Motion: you can see a structure based on movement of parts ⿞Binocular disparity uses the fact that our left and right eyes receive slightly different images because they are observing the scene from slightly different positions ‣ Disparity: the difference in the images of the two eyes, caused by the eyes' slightly different locations in space ‣ Stereopsis: the impression of depth that is derived from disparity • Color Blindness: Ishihara Plates ⿞Types of Color Vision ‣ Trichromatopia: typical color vision, with three functional cones ‣ Dichromatopia: Atypical color vision, caused by a genetic mutation that prevents the formation of one cone type • Protanopia: defective L-cones (red end of the spectrum); ~1% of men, .02% of women) • Deuteranopia: defective M-cones; ~1% of men, .02% of women • Tritanopia: defective S-cones; ~.001% of men, .03% of women ‣ Monochromatopia: Atypical color vision, caused by a genetic mutation that prevents formation of two or three of the cone types; ~.00001% of men and women • Although you might have one functional cone, you have nothing to compare it to ‣ Anomalous color vision: Atypical color vision, caused by a genetic mutation that alters (but does not eliminate) the function of one or more cone types; ~6% of men, .4% of women ‣ Tetrachromatopia: Atypical color vision, caused by a genetic mutation that effectively causes a fourth cone type to develop (thought to occur in ~1% of women; see 100x more colors than typical) ‣ What the world would look like:


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