Chapter 7 Vocabulary Notes
Chapter 7 Vocabulary Notes PSYC 1000
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Chapter 7 Vocabulary Term: Definition: Connection: learning the process of acquiring through experience new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. associative learning learning that certain events occur together → people who work occur together. The events may together or in the same class = be two stimuli (as in classical associates → associative learning conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning). stimulus any event or situation that Stem sounds like (stim)ulus. Its the part evokes a response. that evokes the flower to bloom → event the evokes a response cognitive learning the acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events, by watching others, or through language. classical conditioning a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2). neutral stimulus (NS) in classical conditioning, a Think of a neutral face, it's not stimulus that elicits no response responsive to anything before conditioning. unconditioned response (UR) in classical conditioning, an unlearned, naturally occurring response (such as salivation) to an unconditioned stimulus (US) (such as food in the mouth). unconditioned stimulus (US) in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally— naturally and automatically—triggers a response (UR). conditioned response (CR) in classical conditioning, a learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS). conditioned stimulus (CS) in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response (CR). acquisition in classical conditioning, the Acquisition in business terms is the initial stage, when one links a merging of two businesses → (refer to neutral stimulus and an the dog pictures above) the merging/ unconditioned stimulus so that linking of the bell to the food. the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response. extinction the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced. spontaneous recovery the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response. generalization the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses. discrimination (1) in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. (2) in social psychology, unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members. operant conditioning a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. law of effect Thorndike’s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. operant chamber in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. reinforcement in operant conditioning, any event thatstrengthens the behavior it follows. shaping an operant conditioning Think ofshaping clay or play dough procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior. positive reinforcement increasing behaviors by Reward presenting positive reinforcers. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response. negative reinforcement increasing behaviors by Punishment stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: Negative reinforcement is not punishment.) primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. conditioned reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer; also known as a secondary reinforcer . continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs. reinforcement schedule a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced. partial (intermittent) reinforcing a response only part Partial → not all/ a portion of time reinforcement of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. fixedratio schedule in operant conditioning, a Fixed → specified reinforcement schedule that Ratio → number of responses reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses variableratio schedule in operant conditioning, a Variable → Variety (unpredictable) reinforcement schedule that Ratio → number of responses reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses. fixedinterval schedule in operant conditioning, a Fixed → specified intervals of times reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed. variableinterval schedule in operant conditioning, a Variable → a variety (unpredictable) of reinforcement schedule that intervals (times) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. punishment an event that tends to ecrease the behavior it follows. respondent behavior behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus. operant behavior behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences. cognitive map a mental representation of the layout of one’s environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it. Ie: mouse maze, mice learn the maze by going to the cheese intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior Intrinsic→ Inside rewards. Like love, effectively for its own sake. since of belonging, appraisal extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior Extrinsic sounds like extra → extra to receive promised rewards or credit, do an extra assignment you get avoid threatened punishment. more points added to your grade. People especially do it when they have a bad grade in the course to revent punishment by their parents observational learning learning by observing others. modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that some Think about theater class and doing the scientists believe fire when mirroring exercise, you have to copy performing certain actions or what the other person is doing. when observing another doing so. The brain’s mirroring of another’s action may enable imitation and empathy. prosocial behavior positive, constructive, helpful Pro → + positive behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.
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