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Chapter 7 Vocabulary Notes

by: Naida Adams

Chapter 7 Vocabulary Notes PSYC 1000

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Psychlogy > PSYC 1000 > Chapter 7 Vocabulary Notes
Naida Adams
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Make your own references or use mine to create flash cards or use as a study sheet
Introductory Psychology
Christyn Dolbier
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naida Adams on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.


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Date Created: 03/27/16
Chapter 7 Vocabulary   Term:  Definition:  Connection:  learning  the process of acquiring    through experience new and  relatively enduring information  or behaviors.  associative learning  learning that certain events  occur together​  → people who work  occur together. The events may  together or in the same class =  be two stimuli (as in classical  associates → ​ associative learning  conditioning) or a response and  its consequences (as in operant  conditioning).  stimulus  any event or situation that  Stem sounds like (stim)ulus. Its the part  evokes a response.  that evokes the flower to bloom →  event the evokes a response                          cognitive learning  the acquisition of mental    information, whether by  observing events, by watching  others, or through language.   classical conditioning  a type of learning in which one  learns to link two or more  stimuli and anticipate events.    behaviorism  the view that psychology (1)    should be an objective science  that (2) studies behavior without  reference to mental processes.  Most research psychologists  today agree with (1) but not with  (2).  neutral stimulus (NS)  in classical conditioning, a  Think of a neutral face, it's not  stimulus that elicits no response  responsive to anything  before conditioning.    unconditioned response (UR)  in classical conditioning, an  unlearned, naturally occurring  response (such as salivation) to  an unconditioned stimulus (US)    (such as food in the mouth).  unconditioned stimulus (US)  in classical conditioning, a  stimulus that unconditionally—  naturally and  automatically—triggers a    response (UR).  conditioned response (CR)  in classical conditioning, a  learned response to a  previously neutral (but now  conditioned) stimulus (CS).    conditioned stimulus (CS)  in classical conditioning, an  originally irrelevant stimulus  that, after association with an  unconditioned stimulus (US),  comes to trigger a conditioned    response (CR).   acquisition  in classical conditioning, the  Acquisition in business terms is the  initial stage, when one links a  merging of two businesses → (refer to  neutral stimulus and an  the dog pictures above) ​ the merging/  unconditioned stimulus so that  linking ​of the bell to the food.   the neutral stimulus begins  triggering the conditioned  response. In operant  conditioning, the strengthening  of a reinforced response.  extinction  the diminishing of a conditioned    response; occurs in classical  conditioning when an  unconditioned stimulus does  not follow a conditioned  stimulus; occurs in operant  conditioning when a response  is no longer reinforced.  spontaneous recovery  the reappearance, after a    pause, of an extinguished  conditioned response.  generalization  the tendency, once a response    has been conditioned, for  stimuli similar to the conditioned  stimulus to elicit similar  responses.  discrimination  (1) in classical conditioning, the    learned ability to distinguish  between a conditioned stimulus  and stimuli that do not signal an  unconditioned stimulus. (2) in  social psychology, unjustifiable  negative behavior toward a  group and its members.   operant conditioning  a type of learning in which  behavior is strengthened if  followed by a reinforcer or  diminished if followed by a  punisher.    law of effect  Thorndike’s principle that    behaviors followed by favorable  consequences become more  likely, and that behaviors  followed by unfavorable  consequences become less  likely.  operant chamber  in operant conditioning  research, a chamber (also  known as a ​Skinner box)​  containing a bar or key that an  animal can manipulate to obtain  a food or water reinforcer;  attached devices record the  animal’s rate of bar pressing or  key pecking.    reinforcement  in operant conditioning, any    event that​strengthens the  behavior it follows.  shaping  an operant conditioning  Think ofshaping ​ clay or play dough   procedure in which reinforcers  guide behavior toward closer  and closer approximations of  the desired behavior.  positive reinforcement  increasing behaviors by  Reward   presenting positive reinforcers.  A positive reinforcer is any  stimulus that, when presented  after a response, strengthens  the response.  negative reinforcement  increasing behaviors by  Punishment   stopping or reducing negative  stimuli. A negative reinforcer is  any stimulus that, when  removed​  after a response,  strengthens the response.  (Note: Negative reinforcement  is not punishment.)  primary reinforcer  an innately reinforcing stimulus,  such as one that satisfies a  biological need.    conditioned reinforcer  a stimulus that gains its  reinforcing power through its  association with a primary  reinforcer; also known as a  secondary reinforcer​ .    continuous reinforcement  reinforcing the desired    response every time it occurs.  reinforcement schedule  a pattern that defines how often    a desired response will be  reinforced.   partial (intermittent)  reinforcing a response only part  Partial → not all/ a portion of time   reinforcement  of the time; results in slower  acquisition of a response but  much greater resistance to  extinction than does continuous  reinforcement.  fixed­ratio schedule  in operant conditioning, a  Fixed → specified   reinforcement schedule that  Ratio → number of responses   reinforces a response only after  a specified number of  responses  variable­ratio schedule  in operant conditioning, a  Variable → Variety (unpredictable)   reinforcement schedule that  Ratio → number of responses   reinforces a response after an  unpredictable number of  responses.  fixed­interval schedule  in operant conditioning, a  Fixed → specified intervals of times   reinforcement schedule that  reinforces a response only after  a specified time has elapsed.    variable­interval schedule  in operant conditioning, a  Variable​ → a variety (unpredictable) of  reinforcement schedule that  intervals​ (times)  reinforces a response at  unpredictable time intervals.  punishment  an event that tends to ​ ecrease    the behavior it follows.  respondent behavior  behavior that occurs as an    automatic response to some  stimulus.  operant behavior  behavior that operates on the  environment, producing  consequences.    cognitive map  a mental representation of the  layout of one’s environment.  For example, after exploring a  maze, rats act as if they have  learned a cognitive map of it    latent learning  learning that occurs but is not  apparent until there is an  incentive to demonstrate it.    Ie: mouse maze, mice learn the maze  by going to the cheese   intrinsic motivation  a desire to perform a behavior  Intrinsic→ Inside rewards. Like love,  effectively for its own sake.  since of belonging, appraisal   extrinsic motivation  a desire to perform a behavior  Extrinsic ​sounds like extra → ​extra  to receive promised rewards or  credit, do an extra assignment you get  avoid threatened punishment.  more points added to your grade.  People especially do it when they have  a bad grade in the course to ​ revent  punishment​  by their parents   observational learning  learning by observing others.    modeling  the process of observing and    imitating a specific behavior.  mirror neurons  frontal lobe neurons that some  Think about theater class and doing the  scientists believe fire when  mirroring exercise, you have to copy  performing certain actions or  what the other person is doing.   when observing another doing  so. The brain’s mirroring of  another’s action may enable  imitation and empathy.  prosocial behavior  positive, constructive, helpful  Pro → ​ + positive   behavior. The opposite of  antisocial behavior.   


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