Readings from first two weeks
Readings from first two weeks SMPA 3350
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This 6 page Reader was uploaded by Chioma Iheoma on Friday January 23, 2015. The Reader belongs to SMPA 3350 at George Washington University taught by Kabra in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Public Diplomacy in Journalism and Mass Communications at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
Reader1 Friday January 23 2015 911 PM Chapter 3 Public Diplomacy before Gullion The evolution of a Phrase Nicholas Cull Edmund Gullion coined the term quotpublic diplomacyquot in its modern meaning in in 1965 o The earliest known use of the phrase was in 1856 in an English paper where it was synonymous with civility RH19 o The term was used in different ways during WW1 and at the end Woodrow Wilson used it in the sense of quotopen covenantsquot between governments This was a more idealistic interpretation of the term because it was still difficult for intergovernmental relations to be transparent This meaning lost traction around WWII RHZO o In the 1950s the meaning quotshifted towards the realm of international information and propagandaquot because diplomacy practices had changed and diplomatic acts were being seen as quotpublic performancesquot RHZ 1 Gullion39s accepted definition of the term transformed the way diplomacy was enacted and studied in America It became more universally accepted in the90s The New Public Diplomacy Between Theory and Practice Ian Melissen Forming a nation39s image in the eyes of foreign nations has been done since the beginning of nations The invention of the printing press enlarged the scale of official communication with foreign publics 17th century France put more effort compared to other European countries into framing itself and peaked under Louis XIV 3 WWI saw quotthe birth of professional image cultivation across national bordersquot and public diplomacy or image manipulation began to be called quotsoft powerquot 4 I I I I 39T n Inn nntnranu r1 nnnn lrtr mne l 114170 Inn IIQY r Q ntrnr nrurnnn nn l 11101 Invn lo l U UC lJU VV C1 1 L11 1 bUUllLly IIIUDL 11C1V C IIIIIUCIIDC UV C1 UlJllllUll llUL J UDL U1 ULC strength quotThe battle of values and ideas that dominated international relations in the second half of the twentieth century evolved into competition in the sphere of hard power and not vice versaquot 4 Traditional definitions of diplomacy assume that the actors involved are all equally powerfulwith clearly defined responsibilities and abilities 5 Public Diplomacy as a Concept 0 PD became most closely related with America after its modern coinage by Gullion During the cold war the US worked hard to teach foreigners about quotThe American Wayquot Public Diplomacy in the Changing International Environment and Good Practice of PD 0 quotThe aims of public diplomacy cannot be achieved if they are believed to be inconsistent with a country39s foreign policy or military actionsquot 7 o It is important to have long term PD strategies that invoke centrally coordinated policies 0 Public Diplomacy has influenced the changes in international relations 0 Most successful PD initiatives happened because they were necessary 910 39 Bali Bombing in Indonesia in 2002 I Pakistan Any countries that would have been largely unknown outside of their regions if not forincidents Distinguishing Between Propaganda NationBranding Cultural Relations and Public Diplomacy Waller Definitions What is Public Diplomacy and What is it For Public diplomacy is different from traditional diplomacy because of its focus on relations with the foreign publics rather than the foreign governments quotCentral to public diplomacy is the transnational flow of information and ideasquot pg 23 Transnational government and nongovernment interaction Edward R Murro Center for Public Diplomacy 19653 Public diplomacy concerns the role ot the press and other media in international affairs cultix39ation b governments of public Opinion the nongovernmental interaction of private groups and interests in one countr with those of anOther and the impact of these transnational processes on the formulation of poliC and the conduct of foreign affairu quotquotIvu v39 I 39lvquotquot UUH39 USIA US Information Agency 0 Furthers national objectives by I In uencing public attitudes abroad I Advising the President and the executive branch on the implications of foreign opinions on policies and programs they39re considering o Policies of the USIA differ by country and situation Approaches to PD change as the foreign audience changes Public Diplomacy Taxonomies and Histories Cull Components of PD and their interrelationships 1 Listening I Successful PD requires listening but no state has made responding to international opinion central to its diplomacy I Collecting and collating data about publics and their opinion is old news The statistical and computational aspect is more modern I EX Targeted polling I Country that39s good at it Switzerland 2 Advocacy I Consists of an actor trying to promote a policy idea or interest in the minds of the public I Dominant in American Public Diplomacy I Ex Embassy press relations I Country that39s good at it US 3 Cultural Diplomacy I Consists of an actor39s attempt to manage the international environment through making its cultural resources and achievements known overseas I France has spent a lot on this I EX Statefunded international art tour I Country that39s good at it France 4 Exchange I Consists of an actor sending its citizens overseas and accepting foreign citizens to study and acculturation I Iapanese PD is centered around this 39T L IIC 1 39 AAA Ar 1A391 39 11n 1I J i AAJ n 1 LA LL nn 39 l 16 U3 Il39dS lIlVCSLCU IlC39dVlly lIl LIllS UUL IL 15 IlUL CCIILI dl LU 1L5 I U I EX Twoway academic exchange I Country that39s good at it Japan 5 International News Broadcasting I Consists of an actor using radio tV and internet technologies to engage with foreign publics I Its key component is news and it is institutionally separate from PD I Int39l news broadcasting is the most widely known element in British Public Diplomacy thanks to the BBC I EX Foreignlanguage shortwave radio broadcasting I Country that39s good at it Britain USDS and USAID Branding Policies The USDS promotes a bunch of nicesounding things by promoting their programs and assistance efforts to other countries The goal is to say quothey look at all these nice things that we doquot which advances foreign policy goals The flag is supposed to be used alongside all programs and activities run by the USDS 0 Supports the association ofthe US with these positive things Moratorium a temporary prohibition ofan activity The support of the US Government is supposed to be heralded through the processing of all programs and grants etc forforeign bodies This is to make the US Govt look good but this can come back to bite the US in the long term What if a person who uses such a grant uses it in a way that is unfavorable by the administration It still reflects on the administration It is not mandatory to do so if the label endangers dept employees beneficiaries or partners if the US Govt is one amongst many in cosponsoring and the label makes it look otherwise where it alienates people and raises suspicion of US motives in a way that undermines the program 0 how do you know it quot raises suspicionquot What is the criteria for this The Distinction between Public Affairs and Public Diplomacy Heller and Persson quotStrategic Communication entails synchronizing Public Affairs PA and Public Diplomacy PD in an attempt to unify words and messagesquot 225 Routledge The use of psychological means for state purposes has been around for quite along time Comparison of PA and PD both have a commitment to presenting the nation one internally the other externally 0 Public Affairs works to respect the rights of people in a democracy to be informed of what their government is up to I Core purpose is informing and the intended audience is the domestic population 0 Public Diplomacy is to manipulate the perceptions of people around the world to facilitate the interest of a nation I Core purpose is to in uence the way that people in other nations think of the US so that they are in line with US interests the intended audience 39 Modern PD also has a goal of cultural understanding 39 More strategic than PA SmithMundt Act of 1948 formed the US PD charter after WWII and established the USIA o The Foreign Relations Act of 1972 amended it to ban the dissemination of US info that was going to be distributed overseas in the US 0 Zorinsky Amendment restricted PD by prohibiting any funding material used to influence public opinion in the states 0 Q So basically it39s okay to in uence public opinion abroad but not here Even though that technically already happens What is the main difference between the type of in uence happening abroad and the type of in uence happening here thatit is not allowed to happen here Or is the fact that it is quotnot allowed to happen here just propagandaquot Office of Strategic In uence was established after 911 and was committed to the exec branch with the goal of generation public sentiment and favorable perception of US policy using civil and military communication Coordination of PA and PD can lead to determining which gets priority 0 Can result in the problem of PA not matching up with PD OR Presentation of PD not matching up with power projected by PA Successful use presents values and intentions without disclosing actions that can lead to questions
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