Psych 355 week of notes
Psych 355 week of notes PSY 355
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Nesbitt on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 355 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Kristy Dean in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology & Culture in Psychlogy at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Psychology & Culture Week 11 Notes Class #26 3/28/16 Interpersonal Attraction o Consensus on “beautiful” facial features? Ps were White Europeans, Asian & Hispanic international students 48 target stimuli of women from range of ethnic backgrounds Winners in international beauty contest Rated 1 (very unattractive) to 8 (very attractive) Recorded facial measurements o 23 total measurements width/length of face (example) *hair pulled back & no make-up worn Strong consensus across ethnic groups Asian-Hispanic: r=.937 Asian-White: r=.909 Hispanic-White: r=.935 *higher correlation coefficient= strong consensus Which facial features influenced attractiveness most? Across ethnic groups, attractiveness associated w/large eyes, smaller nose, higher cheekbones, narrow faces o “baby-like” features large eyes, smaller nose o Adult features higher cheekbones, narrow face Asians (vs Whites) gave less positive ratings to faces w/higher eyebrows, wider smiles o Features related to expressiveness The Nature of Relationships o What characteristics your relationship with…? Sense of “closeness”/connection Similarity/shared interests Both invest in relationship o In high relational mobility contexts… Default state is alone, an individual Abundant opportunities for relationships Relationships viewed as flexible & voluntary Chosen/maintained based on benefits to the self Common in cultures than encourage independent self-construals o In low relational mobility contexts… We are born into relationships Few opportunities for (more) relationship Relationships viewed as stable, less flexible Less choice; we have obligations to relationship partners Common in cultures that encourage interdependent self- construals Friendships o What would you think of someone with no friends? Wonder about person’s characteristics/personality Negative impression In U.S., 59% mention “pity” (vs 8% in Ghana) In Ghana, 67% “accusatory” (vs 24% in U.S.) b/c bon into relationships o What would you think of someone with a lot of friends? In Ghana, 29% mention “foolish” (vs 4% in U.S.) Friends & Enemies o Relationships can be liabilities “If an insect bites you, it comes from inside your clothes” o Enemyship is “built into everyday worlds” in Ghana Cultural products Bumper stickers Song titles & lyrics (“Fear Your Neighbor”) “Juju” (protection charm/amulet) Cultural practices Infant seclusion Prevalence of belief in witchcraft Enemyship in Ghana (vs U.S.) o What would you think of someone with no enemies? In Ghana, 50% mention “foolish, naïve” (vs 19% in U.S.) b/c born into relationships including enemy relationships o What would you think of someone who believed they were the target of a hidden enemy? In U.S., 45% mention “paranoid” (vs 9% in Ghana) Class #27 Arrange Marriage o Types of arranged marriage Parents choose partner Individual can’t object Individual can object Parents & individual negotiate regarding partner (much more common) Individual chooses partner, parents agree (or object) o Arranged marriage in history Royal European families marrying off daughters to from alliances o What influences degree of parental influence? IND/COLL? o PBS Rough Cut Video: “This is Your Wife” Tabriz & Sumra (Pakistan) What beliefs are expressed regarding marriage & family? How do they compare to beliefs commonly in the U.S.? o Beliefs underlying arranged marriage Marriage of families (not individuals) Families know you, can be trusted to make match Social group similarity is important Emotions are less important in decision-making Love develops over time, takes different forms Emphasis on companionship & commitment vs intimacy & passion Love vs Arranged Marriage o Are people happy in their marriages? o Study: Gupta & Singh (1982) Compared 25 love & 25 arranged marriages in India Reported on happiness yearly for 10 years Rubin’s liking-loving scale Ex: one of my primary concerns is ____ welfare Class #29 Moral Reasoning Across Cultures o Ethic of autonomy Emphasis on “do no harm”, also rights violations & individual freedom Does the behavior directly harm another? Does the behavior infringe upon rights/freedoms of the individual? o Ethic of community Emphasis on interpersonal duties & responsibilities Does the behavior show lack of loyalty? Failure to fulfill duties/roles? o Ethic of divinity Emphasis on standards mandated by transcendent authority Does behavior violate the “natural order”? disrespect/defile a creator or its creation? o Different emphasis across cultures? Islam & depictions of muhamad ethic of divinity U.S. & freedom of speech ethic of autonomy o Scenario methodology pits two ethics against each other o Abortion: ethic of autonomy vs ethic of divinity o Steal the train ticket or miss the wedding: ethic of autonomy vs ethic of community Culture Wars o Differences in the types of ethics emphasized y orthodox and progressive religions Emphasis on moral code from transcendent authority or human interpretation of that code o Study: Jensen (1997) Baptists from fundamentalist or mainline sects Explained moral judgments on various issues (abortion, divorce) Is this distinction between orthodox/progressive religions unique to Christianity? Class #30 Distributive Justice o Resources can be distributed… Equitably (based on contributions, merit) Equally (everyone receives the same) Based on need o How does culture influence which method of distribution we view as most just? o Equity viewed as most just in the U.S. Costs & benefits? Consequently, equity + equality, or + need o Equality and need-based distribution considered most just everywhere else Equality rarely applied in strictest form (seniority in Japan) Need-based distribution especially common to informal social situations Need more common than equality in India (pg 506-507) The Dictator Game o You are paired with another participant. A coin toss determines that you (and not the other participant) will receive $10. If you want, you can give some of your $10 to the other participant. What do you decide? People (in U.S.) regularly split around 50-50 Considered “irrational”- why give stranger anything? It’s not in your self-interest
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