Drugs of Abuse and Behavior - Week10 Notes
Drugs of Abuse and Behavior - Week10 Notes PSYC 3346
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristina Saiz on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3346 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Adolfo J. Alvarez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Drugs of Abuse and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Week 10 Drugs of Abuse and Behavior Alcohol Continued from last week…. Gender: women get drunk faster than men because men have more water in their bodies Metabolism: how alcohol gets broken down -Alcohol + alcohol dehydrogenase (enzyme) Acetaldehyde -the less the amount of this enzyme, the slower the alcohol is metabolized. Women have less alcohol dehydrogenase which is why the alcohol stays in the system longer than it does in men -“Asian flush” when Asians drink, they blush and become nauseous (about 25% of Asians) -approximately 80-90% of alcohol is metabolized by the liver -alcohol is excreted by urine & also by sweat and your breath at a rate of about 15% per hour Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) -<1% of alcohol will kill us: about .3% would kill a non-alcoholic; about .4% would kill an alcoholic BAC: ***these are important for the test!!*** -120 pounds .08 BAC =2 drinks/hour -140 pounds .10 BAC = 3 drinks/hour 120pounds with one drink = BAC of .04 -after an hour BAC goes down to .025 because alcohol metabolizes at a constant rate of -.015 IV. Acute Desirable Effects Biphasic: -1) Stimulant low dose -2) Sedative higher dose -Low doses cause disinhibition -some people drink to get drunk, they like the effects -designating a driver doesn’t work V. Moderate Drinking -Males 2 drinks per occasion ; Females 1 drink per occasion -Antioxidants: reduce the risk of stroke, this goes for ALL alcohol not just wine -Binge Drinking: males 5 shots/drinks in one sitting (quickly between each drink); females 4 shots/drinks in one sitting (quickly between each drink) -Habitual Binge Drinkers: get low grades, drive while intoxicated, damage property, suffer more injuries, engaged more often in violent behavior, engage more often in risky sexual behavior (unprotected sex) -freshmen binge drink more in college compared to sophomores, juniors, seniors -men binge drink more frequently than women -fraternities/sororities binge drink more than people not associated with greek life -varsity athletics binge drink more than those not in athletics -College students VS. non-college students drink more -College students VS. high school students drink more -in terms of tobacco and smoking, it’s the opposite effect in both those cases meaning that high school students and non-college students smoke more than college students -80% drank during the last year (college students) - <50% binge drinkers (college setting) -Aims: drink frequently, drink heavily, to get drunk -there is more binge drinking that occurs in non-commuting universities Drug Interactions: Potentiation Synergism -the effect of one drink gets added to the one -combining alcohol with other depressants before it -effect is multiplied by effect of other depressant -get drunk faster -OD occurs faster when combined -Rohypnol illegal in US but legal in Mexico (makes a person sleepy but also causes anterograde amnesia) Blackouts: occur at short term memory Anterograde Amnesia: hippocampus resembles a seahorse (not sure what the memory device was to remember why this is important or relevant to sea horses… sorry) Hangover: “never drinking again!” cold shower won’t work, menudo also doesn’t work to “cure” hangovers, the only way to rid yourself of a hangover is to let the alcohol dissipate with time -Drink light colored beverages for no hangover DEPRESSANTS & INHALANTS 1) Alcohol 2) Opioids 3) Inhalants 4) Sedatives, Hypnotics, & Anxiolytics (SH&A) Depressants: Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, Non-Benzodiazepines I. Acute Desired Effects -sedatives to sedate someone who is physically agitated -Hypnotics help people with sleep onset -Anxiolytics for anxiety II. Terms SH&A: minor tranquilizers -major tranquilizers Thorazine used for psychosis (schizophrenia) -1) Antipsychotics 2) Neuroleptics -Hypnotics: Soporifics -Non-BDZ -Benzodiazepine (BDZ) Barbiturates, BDZ & Inhalants -all are agonists for GABA (Gamma amino-butyric acid) -they attach to inhibitory receptors Routes of Administration -injection (IV), oral (tablets/capsules), pulmonary III. Medical Uses (Except Inhalants) 1) Anesthetics 2) Anticonvulsants 3) Were used as sedatives but was stopped because they were highly addictive IV. Criminal Justice Use -death sentence: pentothal, thiopental, euthansol (for dogs) -Pentothal Sodium used for spies as a “truth serum” V. History -term barbiturate came from chemist trying to make new chemical, and then the rest of the story came from the chemist going to a bar on St. Barbara’s Day -1903 it was named barbital barbiturates usually end in ‘–al’ such as: - Pentobarbital, Secobarbital, Amobarbital, Phenobarbital VI. Acute Side Effects OD (Marilyn Monroe overdosed on barbiturates)*** Benzodiazepines (BDZ) -safer than barbiturates but still at risk of OD though you would need a very large dose: Ativan*, Klonopin*, Valium (number one seller in US & Europe)*, Xanax I. Acute Desirable Effects 1) Relaxation, mellow feeling 2)Reduction of inhibitions 3) Hypnotic effects -these are supposed to be used as short term drugs for anxiety II. Terms Generic names *diazepam (Valium), clonazepam, flunitrazepam, alprazolam III. Medical Uses 1) Anxiolytic (anxiety) 2) Hypnotic 3) Anticonvulsant 4) Detoxification (for alcoholics) 5) Anterograde amnesia Versed (midazolam) to induce amnesia (for colonoscopy or surgeries) Hippocampus involved in short term memory IV. Acute Side Effects -drowsiness, slurred speech, slowed movements -1) light headedness 2) vertigo 3) muscle incoordination (reaction time decreased) 4) slurred speech -similar to effects of alcohol -synergism alcohol + depressant (BDZ) 1) hypnotic: produces sleep much quicker 2) anterograde amnesia **Rohypnol is flunitrazepam illegal in US, legal in Mexico. Called “roofies”, or “roche” in mexico (because of pharmaceutical company that makes it)** GHB (gamma hydroxybutiric acid) -street name “easy lay” Heath ledger overdosed on a BDZ Michael Jackson overdosed on Ativan, propofol and other meds V. Chronic Effects -addiction
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