11/2 Week of Notes
11/2 Week of Notes 1102.0
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by ashcash on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1102.0 at University of Georgia taught by Gonzalez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Economic Behavior: o Economic systems coexist today: Adaptive Strategies Modes of Production Exchange Principles o Economic Systems Reflect Social Structure: Few direct social connections = market principle and negative reciprocity i.e. pastoral communities Direct social connections = redistribution and balanced reciprocity Close social connections = generalized reciprocity People are closely related Organizing Societies: Kinship, families, and descent o Kinship, family, descent, and marriage are the basic building blocks of all societies These building blocks are the basis of how people see how they are related to other people in society. Kinship Systems: culturally defined human relationships of interdependence underlying all social organization Family: Culturally defined group of two or more people related by birth, marriage, or adoption (a group of people who understand each other, and are related based on birth, or marriage, or adoption). We see a lot of variation in what a “family” is Families o All kinship systems begin with some cultural understanding of what a family is Universal functions of family: 1) nurturing and enculturating children (in this sense a family means 3 or more people 2 parents and one child) AND 2) economic cooperation (sharing resources, labor, etc) Different kinds of families: single parent families (1 adult and 1/more children and less economic cooperation), nuclear families (economic cooperative unit, and a minimum of two parents, and kids. Adults in the unit are cooperating in terms of labor and raising the children), extended families ( multiple adults of multiple generations in one household and are economically cooperative and mutually responsible for enculturation and raising of children parents and grandparents in the household) We generally have this idea that nuclear families are the main type of family however, this is not true. Only 20% of families in the U.S. are nuclear Nuclear Family o Family is NOT a descent group! Families are impermanent kinship structures (because they change over time, as in, you do not stay a part of the same economic cooperative unit that nurtures over time because children group up and get married and have their own families) o Family of Orientation: The family you are born into (where you are nurtured, economic cooperation/support happens, etc.) o Family of Procreation: The family you marry into (you’re thinking about having children) o All types of families are of procreation and orientation o The nuclear family is NOT a universal human trait U.S. family cultural ideal is the “nuclear” family (meaning, we have ideas and values that say people are supposed to be in nuclear families). This is not true, and is not very common. Divorce rates breaks up nuclear families, economic slump of 2008 created extended families, single families, etc. o In Nayar Tarawad (India) Households, extended families are the ideal or primary kinds of families Nuclear families are considered rare This is a matrilineal society (men leave the household when they become adults, get married, find jobs, then go back to their home and live with their mothers) o In Brazil, the ideal or “primary” kind of family is extended They dwell in nuclear family units, but have extended family views and behaviors o We see disconnects between cultural ideals and cultural practice (i.e. u.s. likes nuclear families, but does not practice them) Defining Descent and Ancestry o Descent Systems- each culture has very specific rules that they use for assigning social identity and defining ancestry. o 3 BASIC WAYS: 1) unilineal: relationships are recognized through one line of descent, whether mother’s OR father’s kin lines. (If it’s through the father’s, it’s patrilinieal meaning people on the mom’s side are not related to them. And when people marry into a patrilineal household, they move to that household. If it’s through the mother’s, it’s called matrilineal and the same rules apply. 2) Bilateral: relationships are recognized through both lines of descent (how most industrialized, western societies do it). 3) Ambilineal: Flexible system where people choose to recognize relationships through either side, but not both (families choose one side or the other but they don’t use both sides at the same time. They do this in hunter gatherer societies and other socieities where people need resources so they change lineage to get those. Other times, you can grow up in one lineage and then when you get married, you switch off lineage). Forms of Descent Groups o Descent Group: A permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry and kinship (unlike families, descent groups are permanent, whether someone claims it or not) o 3 DIFFERENT FORMS: 1) lineage: a descent group with a common known ancestor--usually in unilineal societies where they have patrilineage or matrilineage and they live in the same area with their families (usually in bilateral, but common in other types of descent groups. Example of this is like a family reunion). 2) Clan: Made up of several lineages (ancestor is usually a mythical figure doesn’t mean ancestor is unreal, it means living people are not always able to understand or describe why or how they are connected to that ancestor). Nonhuman ancestors are called totems (Native American groups use this kind of clan structure and their totems are usually animals). 3) Bilateral Kindred: Recognizing close relatives on the mother’s and father’s side 11/4/2015: Kinship How Cultures Calculate Kinship o Classification systems shape how cultures perceive their social worlds Patterns are in linguistic terms and categories (define understanding of kinship and social relations) Kin types, kin terms, and biological types o Chart is in book Kinship Calculation and Classification o No two individuals will have the same kinship pattern however, similarities exist defining the kinship system Kinship Calculation o Kin terms versus biological types There are 6 biological , meaning everyone uses these terms and they are translatable in every language (mom, dad, son, daughter, brother, sister) U.S. Kin Terms: aunts, uncles, nephews, nieces, cousins. And each of those terms can mean many different things. (i.e. cousins means father’s brother’s son, father’s brother’s daughter, mother’s brother’s son, etc.) 2 prefixes mark generation: Grand=mother’s father or mother’s mother or father’s father or father’s mother, etc. and Great = +1 generation (great grandmother, etc.) Mark affinal (marriage) relations: wife, husband, step-, -in-law o Societies will use these terms in different ways so we need words to further distinguish meanings universally Parallel Cousins: the children of a person’s parents’ same-sex siblings Cross Cousins: the children of a person’s parents’ opposite-sex siblings Kinship Terminology o 4 kinship classification systems: 1) Lineal Terminology: parental generation has four terms mother, father, aunt (mother’s sister, father’s sister) and uncle (father’s brother, mother’s brother). This distinguishes relatives in a direct line (lineal). Collateral relatives are off to one side (i.e. Eskimo pattern direct line distinguished from collateral relatives) Affinal relatives are relatives by marriage (as opposed to genealogical relationships) Lineal terminology is usually correlated with bilateral descent (i.e. foraging and industrial societies as a means of adaptive strategy) 2) Bifurcate Merging Terminology: Separates mother’s relatives from father’s relatives. Parental generation has four terms: mother, father, mother’s brother (MB), and father’s sister (FZ) meaning they only think about descent on one side of the family (i.e. Iroquois pattern same term for parents and their same-se siblings. Same term for parallel cousins as one’s own siblings) Correlated with unilineal descent (i.e. in horticultural and pastoral societies as an agricultural adaptive strategy) 3) Generational Terminology: Distinguishes only between generations and sex. Parental generation has two terms: mother, father (i.e. Hawaiian/American Samoa pattern distinguishes only by generation and sex) Correlated with ambilineal descent (i.e. horticultural, agricultural, and foraging societies as an adaptive strategy) 4) Bifurcate Collateral Terminology: Distinguishes relatives by mother’s or father’s side, generation and sex. Parental generation has 6 terms: mother, father, father’s brother (FB), father’s sister (FZ), mother’s brother (MB), mother’s sister (MZ) Correlated with nothing specific because it is not very common. However, it is becoming more common in industrial societies because intermarrying with other groups causes this (i.e. Sudanese pattern: nearly each kin relation is given a different term generation, gender mother’s side, father’s side) 11/06/2015 Kinship Terminology o There are four kinship categorization systems. Why do we use linguistic terms and categories? To shape cultural understandings of social interactions (i.e. who we share with, who we are related to, etc.) o Each system: Gives the social context to define a relationship Becomes interconnected with other parts of culture Gender, Society, and Culture o Gender is a cultural construction of sexual differences (it is a way that societies think about, give value to, and understand sexual differences). Shared ideas about female to male roles is based in both biology and culture Gender and Social Organization: o Biological Factors: Sexual dimorphism (means usually males are females bigger than females and girls have certain parts and organs, and boys have other parts and organs, USUALLY) o Cultural Constructs: Cultures add meaning and value (i.e. gender roles tasks and activities that vary from gender to gender. For instance, women are nurturers and men are workers/bread winners) (we also get gender stereotypes oversimplified ideas about what genders can and cannot do) (gender stratification unequal distribution of power and rewards among the genders) Gender, Sexuality, and Orientation o Gender varies cross-culturally and through time. GENDER IS NOT BIOLOGICALLY FIXED!! Meaning, male and female genders are universally dominant, but
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