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Notes: Week of 11/2-11/6: Tracheophytes

by: Ian Seaman

Notes: Week of 11/2-11/6: Tracheophytes EBIO 1010-02

Marketplace > Tulane University > Biological Sciences > EBIO 1010-02 > Notes Week of 11 2 11 6 Tracheophytes
Ian Seaman
GPA 4.0
Diversity of Life
Doosey, Michael

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Here are notes for the week of 11/2 through 11/6. They include information on tracheophytes and pterophytes, seed plants and gymnosperms, and the first half of the angiosperms lecture. There is inf...
Diversity of Life
Doosey, Michael
Class Notes
tulane, EBIO, Diversity of Life, notes, Tracheophytes, Gymnosperms, angiosperms, Seeds
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ian Seaman on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
Tracheophytes and Pterophytes Tracheophytes has vascular tissue Nonseed Plants ferns Seed Plants Tracheophyte Plants no roots or leaves Xylem conducts water Phloem conducts food sucrose Develops in sporophyte not gametophyte 3 clades O Lycophytes O Pterophytes 0 Seed Plants Heterosporous produce 2 different types of spores Homosporous 1 type of spore completed land invasion the evolution of vascular tissue and seeds let tracheophytes be terrestrial true leaves euphylls formed as a web of tissue between terminal branches in response to global drop in C02 thin at blades of tissue made it more efficient to capture C02 Lycophyta Sphenophyta Psilophyta are fern allies similarities to bryophytes agellated sperm limited to moist environment sporophyte differences sporophyte is dominant stage monoecious sporangia attached to sporophylls sporophylls organized into clubshaped strobili Phylum Lycophyta Club Moss sister group to ferns and other fern allies tropical species are epiphytes Lycophylls small simple leaf with one vascular strand microphyll sporophylls organized into strobili fall to the ground and release spores gametophytes are independent freeliving some have autotrophic gametophytes Phylum Sphenophyta Horsetails closely related to ferns leaves are attened stems hollow stems rough to touch highly branched vegetative stalks homosporous spores dispersed by elaters unbranched reproductive stalk Phylum Psilophyta Whisk Ferns only living vascular plants that lack true leaves or true roots sporangia are bright yellow gametophytes are tiny lack chlorophyll Phylum Pterophyta Ferns share common ancestor with whisk ferns range in size clusters of sporangia Sori sorus sorus are protected by umbrella called an indusium mostly homosporous some are heterosporous spores are ejected by sporangium dominance of sporophyte gametophyte lacks vascular tissue spores germinate into autotrophic gametophyte called Prothallus sporophyte grows out of archegonia early stage is called a fiddlehead curled frond needs water to reproduce Seed Plants and Gymnosperms Tracheophytes Vascular Tissue Seed Plants Gymnosperms Angiosperms Seed Plants break link with water first fully terrestrial plant sperm does not need water entire male gametophyte pollen grain moves through air to reach egg all adult sporophytes of seed plants bear sporangia in a strobilus pine cone all seed plants are heterosporous spores comes from a mother cell Microspores vs Megaspores spores are smaller gametophytes than ferns Microspores male small Megaspores female big no antheridia seed plants are nal stage in alternation of generations sporophyte is dominant form male gametophyte freeliving female gametophyte dependent on sporophyte success attributed to evolution of seed protects and provides food for embryo Seed 0 embryo protected by integument hardens into seed coat has nutrition Male Gametophytes pollen grains dispersed by wind pollen grain can only have 4 cells Female Gametophytes develops with an ovule enclosed within sporophyte tissue in angiosperms Gymnosperms 0 plants with naked seeds 0 lack owers and fruits 0 all have ovule Phylum Coniferophyta o pines spruces firs cedars found in colder and drier habitats sources of important products Pines tough needlelike leaves leaves have thick cuticles and stomata to prevent water loss leaves have canal with resin Male Gametophyte pollen grain microspores in male cones by meiosis Female Gametophyte pine cones are larger 2 ovules each have a megasporangium female cones take 2 or more seasons to mature During spring pollen grains drift in between open scales year later female gametophyte matures o 15 months after pollination male sperm fertilizes egg Phylum Cycadophyta O cycads O slowgrowing tropical gymnosperms O dioecious separate male and female 0 leaves are welldefended sharp tips toxins Phylum Gnetophyta O ephedra 0 odd group typical to arid regions 0 Ephedra photosynthetic stem without leaves source of drug Ephedrine synthetic sudafed O Ephedrine is banned in USA Phylum Ginkgophyta 0 one species Ginkgo Biloba 0 leaves have 2 sperms 0 show transitional stage in seed evolution with cycads both have agellated sperm 0 seeds are covered with eshy coat butyric acid vomit used in herbal medicine Angiosperms Tracheophytes Seed Plants Angiosperms Phylum Anthophyta Angiosperms owering plants ovule enclosed in diploid tissue Carpel modi ed leaf that covers seed Primordium develops into a bud at end of a stalk called a Primel Flower Whorls O Outermost Sepals 0 Second Petals 0 Third Stamens andoecium I pollen is male gametophyte I each stamen has a pollenbearing Anther where meiosis occurs 0 Innermost Gynoecium Carpel has 3 major regions 0 Ovary swollen base with ovules O Stigma tip where pollen lands 0 Style neck or stalk Phylum Anthophyta water lilies were one of first clades to evolve Angiosperms quickly became dominant plants Superior Competitors O able to survive in diverse habitats mature more quickly fruit for seed dispersal abundance in seeds OOOO wider vessels to conduct water 0 animals aid in pollination gymnosperrns are perennials angiosperms can be perennials or annuals ovules are encased in an ovary not a strobilus like in gymnosperms Coevolution occurs when an evolutionary change in organism leads to another change in an organism that is affected by the other organism Fruits function to disperse seeds tiny hooks and spines owers that rely on wind are often tiny owers that are pollinated by animals have showy petals nectar 0 owers try not to pollinate themselves through prevention by O architectural 0 chemical O temporal Seeds 0 maintain dormancy under unfavorable conditions pause growth during bad seasons 0 protects young plant when most vulnerable 0 provides food and nutrition for embryo O germination needs water and oxygen 0 some seeds can only germinate under certain conditions re scorched 0 contains 3 genotypes O Sporophyte tissue 0 Embryo itself 0 Gametophyte simply de ned as mature ovaries during seed formation ower ovary develops into fruit Pericarp ovary wall Fruit dispersal O ingestion by other animal burial in caches squirrels hooks and spines blowing in the wind OOOO oating and drifting in the water


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