Human Sexuality Chapter 1 Notes
Human Sexuality Chapter 1 Notes 3440
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Bacevice on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 3440 at Ohio State University taught by Katye Miller in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 248 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Human Development at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
Human Sexuality Chapter 1 Sexual Intelligence Sexual intelligence involves self understanding interpersonal sexual skills scientific knowledge and consideration of the cultural context of sexuality A Psychosocial Orientation Psychosocial refers to a combination of psychological and social factors 0 Psychological factors emotions attitudes motivations 0 Social conditioning the process by which we learn our social group s expectations and norms Crucial biological foundations of human sexuality include roles of hormones nervous system biological components of sexual orientation theories about the role of genetic selection through thousands of years of evolution and the impact of specific genetic variables on an individual Biopsychosocial the integration of psychological social and biological components All societies have rules regulating the conduct of sexual behavior Controversy and Diversity in Human Sexuality United States 0 Educational level and socioeconomic status are crucial in in uencing sexual attitudes and behaviors I Ex people with more education masturbate more frequently than lesseducated people I Oral Sex most common with young college educated Whites and lease common among African Americans and those with less education 0 Differences between groups are generalities not universal truths I Muslims in America come from over 60 different counties Hispanics in America over 22 0 However in spite of the intragroup differences when research looks at patterns some intergroup differences emerge I Asian Americans are less likely to engage in premarital intercourse o Acculturation replacing traditional beliefs and behavior patterns with those of the dominant culture I This creates differences within sub cultures 0 Race and ethnicity are rarely nonoverlapping classifications I About 50 of the population has dated someone from a different racial group 0 Sexual attitudes behaviors and beliefs about sexuality and gender often vary widely even within the same religious group I Roman Catholics condemn all sexual activity that does not lead to procreation American Catholics not so much Islamic Middle East 15 of the worlds population is Muslim The Qur an allows a man to have up to 4 wives Muslim fundamentalists are following patriarchal traditions not the Qur an in their practices towards women ex Female oppression female genitals to be cut Con icts about Muslim traditions have occurred about headscarves I In Turkey for years women were not allowed to wear headscarves I In France women who wear headscarves can be fined up to 2 1500 Chia s ancient history is rich in erotic literature and art Taoism a Chinese religion actively promoted sexual activity I Men were encouraged to ejaculate infrequently to preserve their yang Orgasms for women during intercourse helped create more yin energy When Confucianism emerged these ideas were put away and further increased after the Communist victory in which the government attempted to eliminate decadent Western sexual behaviors or pornography and prostitution Since 1980s Open Door policy China s government has eased control over individuals lifestyle choices In 2005 70 of residents in Beijing reported to have had sexual relations before marriage Young men both single and married have increased their contact with sex workers which make them and the additional women they have sex with at risk for HIV Our Cultural Legacy Sex for Procreation and Rigid Gender Roles Sex for Procreation 0 Contemporary Roman Catholics and prolife orgs continue to hold to the belief that the only moral sexual expression occurs within marriage for the purpose of procreation 0 Oral sex and anal sex remained illegal in 10 states until 2003 when the Supreme Court overturned laws forbidding these behaviors 0 People commonly believe that sex and intercourse are synonymous 0 Thinking of intercourse as the only quotrealquot sex perpetuates the notions that a man s penis is the primary source of satisfaction for his partner and that her sexual response and orgasm are supposed to occur during penetration Male and Female Gender Roles in Sexuality 0 Rigid gender role conditioning can limit each person s potential and can harm his or her sexuality 0 Across most cultures women face more restrictions on their sexuality than men Sexuality in the Western World A Historical Perspective Iudaic and Christian Traditions o The joyful appreciation of sexuality is part of the Iudaic tradition but it overshadowed by Christianity 0 Paul in uential follower of Christ associated spirituality with sexual abstinence o Celibacy the state of being unmarried and therefore abstaining from sexual intercourse Sex as Sinful o Augustine declared that lust was the original sin of Adam and Eve I Also believed female subordination was intrinsic to God s creation so any intercourse other than the man on top was quotunnaturalquot 0 Thomas Aquinas maintained that human sexual organs were designed for procreation and that any other acts were against God s will Eve Versus Mary 0 Two contradictory images of women were crystallized Virgin Mary and the evil temptress Eve 0 The idea of courtly love re ected a compatible image of a woman as pure and as above reproach Mar 0 The evil temptress re ected an increasing emphasis on Eve s sin A SexPositive Shift 0 Both Martin Luther and John Calvin Protestants recognized the value of se in marriage 0 The Puritans shared appreciation of sexual expression within marriage The Victorian Era o The sexes had highly defined roles OOOO Madonna whore dichotomy Upper and middle class women were valued for their delicacy and ladylike manners I Consequently constrained by restrictive devices corsets hoops bustles Women s duties centered on fulfilling their families spiritual needs and providing a comfortable home Victorians encouraged selfrestraint However prostitution ourished Men were allowed these vices and women were not Celia Mosher conducted the only known research about the sexuality of women of that era I Found that most of the women experienced sexual desires enjoyed intercourse and experienced orgasm contrary to popular belief The Beginning of the 20th Century 0 O Sigmund Freud believed sexuality was innate in women and men Havelock Ellis the loverights of womenquot including masturbation and homosexuality as healthy as long as no one was harmed Theodore Van de Velde stressed the importance of sexual pleasure in his popular marriage manuals Historical events and technology brough new sexual perspectives and possibilities automobiles appers etc A return to more restrained behavior came with the Great Depression Before the development of penicillin no effective treatment existed for life threatening sexually transmitted diseases infections After WWII O 0 Psychology of the era claimed that women who worked outside the hoe were neurotic and suffered from penis envyquot The fashion industry refeminized women with clothing that emphasized the bustline and small waist First issue of Playboy The Time s They Are aChanging 0000 The sexual revolution confronted the norms of previous decades New forms of contraceptives Gay and Lesbians began to openly declare their sexual orientations APA removed homosexuality from its diagnostic category of mental disorders 2011 a CNN Poll reported that support for marriage equality broke the 50 barrier for the first time The Media and Sexuality Television 0 O The number of sexual scenes on standard network programs has doubled since 1998 70 of all programs teens watch include sexual content However compared to ten years ago fewer teens are engaging in sexual contact At times the way sexual issues are presented on television have beneficial effects I Promoting greater knowledge tolerance and positive social change For the last decade Egypt and China have allowed the first sex ed programs presented via public media Music Videos 0 O 75 of music videos have sexual content Typically portray man as sexually aggressive and woman as sexually submissive Adolescents who listen to music with degrading sexual lyrics are twice as likely to have had sexual intercourse and engage in sexual activities Advertising Magazines Cyberspace and Sexuality O O O O 0 Up to 80 of people obtain health information from the internet Internet as a dating service Internet and cell phones as a method of sexual expression 30 of young adults ages 2026 report that they have sent or posted naked or partially naked photos or videos of themselves to irt with someone just for fun Sexting Cyberstrippers pod pornquot Sexuality Where the Personal is Political Laws policies and norms are merged when it comes to sexuality 0 0 Ex funding for family planning and maternal child health service organizations Abstinence only sex education