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Diversity I Notes Seedless Vasc Plants

by: Jacob Erle

Diversity I Notes Seedless Vasc Plants 210

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Foreign Language > 210 > Diversity I Notes Seedless Vasc Plants
Jacob Erle
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About this Document

These are the notes from Thursday's lecture, Week 10, on Seedless Vascular Plants by Dr. Fernando. There are no notes for Tuesday since we had a test.
Diversity of Life I
Dr. Justine Weber
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
Diversity of Life I Notes 11/5/15 Seedless Vascular Plants -Plants first conquered land on Earth about 438MYA, Silurian Period -Cooksonia – oldest known land plant, dominates landscape -very simple structure, only stems and sporangia (no seeds, roots, fruit) -is extinct now but plenty of fossils of this to show structure -Devonian Period, 410-360MYA, dominated by early vascular plants (including Cooksonia) -Seedless Vascular Plants really began to dominate during the Carboniferous Period, 360 MYA *Lines on the handout separating time periods represent mass extinction events -mass extinctions lead to wipeout of species, changes in climate/environment, and introduction of new species Seedless Vascular Plants 1.)Lycopodiophyta (club mosses, NOT true mosses) a. Origin, Lower Devonian, 410MYA b. Dominated during Carboniferous, 360MYA; possibly even more diverse than plant species today Ex. Lepidodendron Scale Tree ~35m tall -origin of roots, primarily used for anchorage (early plants living in water had no root system because they didn’t need them) c. Not as common today d. 2 growth forms: Large, woody, Arborescent (extinct) & small, Herbaceous (extant) e. Used as fuel source (coal) produced from ancient plant biomass f. 1200 living species, 3 lineages -Carboniferous Period predominately arborescent, not highly branched, and covered in vast swamp forests -lycopodiaceae, selaginellaceae and isoetaceae  does this reflect persistence of the past, or result of relatively recent species radiation? =rbcL (ribulouse carboxylase, used in terms of DNA sequence analysis)  low level of sequence divergence -Therefore, relatively recent origin  Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (around the time angiosperms started to appear) -Lycopodium (ground pine, club moss) -small evergreen plant; erect and horizontal stems with strobilus and rhizoids, respectively -reproduce by spores/motile sperms and rhizomes -prefer cool, moist and shady sites in northern hardwood forests -~450species, mostly tropical; 7 local species -living representative much less diverse compared to earlier species -remarkable for morphological conservation over millions of years; leaf, branch and strobilus morphology are very similar (see Huperzia and Baragwanathia) Uses of Lycophytes 1.)Floral industry 2.)Medicinal and homeopathic remedies (Pain relief, antacids, memory retention) 3.)Photography, pyro-techniques/special effects with spores (Lycopodium powder) 4.)Coal Deposits – largest source of electrical energy worldwide 5.)Model system to understand evolution of vascular plants a. Selaginella moellendorffii (resurrection plant) – entire genome has been sequenced; also a good model to understand drought tolerance Monilophyta – Ferns and Allies -12,000 species, Origin – Lower Carboniferous 3 successive radiations: a. Carboniferous – all species extinct except for Marattiaceae – Eusporangiate fern b. Triassic – many new families, some still present – early Leptosporangiate (active spore dispersal) ferns like Cyatheaceae c. Cretaceous – many new species (Ex. Polypodiaceae, common ferns) a. Specialized shade plants, low photosynthetic rates b. Hybrid pigments (neochrome – able to absorb both blue and red light) vs. Angiosperms that can only absorb one or the other c. Ecological opportunistic response Uses -ferns are adapted to low light levels, make for good house plants -arts and crafts -edible ferns -ecological importance: Nitrogen fixers, organic fertilizers (fresh, dried or composted) -Pteris vittata – very efficient accumulator of arsenic Fern Research at ESF -American hart’s tongue fern, listed as threatened in US *see Clarks Reservation -studied for conservation, historical importance Conservation strategies? -habitat protection -climatic and habitat analysis - Leopold -genetic diversity analysis – Leopold and Fernando -in vitro propagation – restoration/re-introduction Dryopteris frangrans, fragrant cliff fern -globally secure -Why study this? Examine plant’s southern range, climate change indicator – Leopold and Fernando END OF NOTES


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