Lecture Notes Psych150
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christopher Moench on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych150 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Dr. Pratkanis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Psychology of FlimFlam in Psychlogy at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Nov. 3 LIES AND DECEPTION OBJECTIVES: I. State how to tell a lie. II. Discuss why liars often get away with lying and how to catch a liar. Example of a spiritualist & lying/deception: spiritualist will secretly steal a valuable personal item from a follower and then months later if the same follower continually attends and meets the spiritualist, the spiritualist will go to the person and praise “god” or some other reason for answering their prayers of a “lost” item and then have the stolen item be “magically” returned to the owner by falling into their lap as if by miracle. Thus giving the spiritualist more authority and power over the believer. Aka “crappy magic trick” A lie is made to convince you of something There are 7 principles used to construct an effective lie; thus giving you the excuse “comes from magic” because the lie is known but is unexplainable. 1. Have Misdirection of Attention: Distract away from what you need to do. Be relaxed while telling a lie, don’t bring up tension because people will see it Don’t be nervous or show physical stress/tension such as clenching your fists or shuffling around or touching the back of your neck Be in charge of directing attention to where you want it and don’t want it Ex: point with your left hand at some random object to cause a distraction from viewers thus freeing your right hand to whatever you want to do with it. Projection tactic: blame someone else for what you are doing wrong. o Ex: the prisoner’s dilemma game study: people watched players of a board game accuse each other of cheating, the one who cheated the most was also the person who blamed others as cheating the most. Accuser was the cheater. o Projection allows you to get off the hook by distracting people by tricking them that you are concerned about the problem because you brought it up first and thus letting you hide behind a moral shield of trying to be fair when it is actually your way of not getting caught. 2. Create perceptual and/or Cognitive Illusions: Cognitive biases examples: projection or representative heuristics (like goes with like, ex. You are sick with a yellow face and you ate a yellow banana thus bananas are bad) Perceptual illusions such as mystery spots where you drive along a road and if you put the car in neutral it will move on its own. The reason for this phenomena is that road looks like an uphill due to the surrounding scenery but in reality it is a downhill thus gravity brings the neutral car down the hill. As from before, using morality or any other shield to save yourself from being questioned and sought as the reason for blame, aka having “outs” which are explanations or made up excuses to explain away suspicion. 3. Distort the Time Frame: Lie before or after the event/trick takes place Ex: psychics usually have something called preshow: preshow is a time before the show that gives the psychic to get ready. But also is one way for the psychic to gain information about his/her viewers by having employees of the psychic to go around and hang out with the audience and get to know some audience members without revealing they work for the psychic. Thus the underlings/employees can provide uncanny information to the psychic who then uses that information during the show to awe the viewers into believing the psychic is genuine. Do the lie before you tell it, allows people to misremember the deed and of what took place. 4. Camouflage the Lie and the Liar: Blend the lie with fluff and cover it with the truth. Make it look “natural and normal” Make the lie passable and as real as possible Make it seem legit by having the truth with it 5. Pace the Lie for Good Effect: Slow down and speed up the lie for effect Ex of slowing a lie (loan scam is the lie): in a loan scam they will give money like a real loan and have a signed contract for a number of years on how much to pay back. So a fixed interest rate for 12 years with manageable payments and then after those two years are finished the scammers will demand the full sum to be paid back with added charges that exponentially increases the amount of money owed. o So here the lie is slowed for two years as a real loan but then at the end it balloons and demands for large sums that the borrower was unaware of. Ex of speeding up a lie (still using loan scam): when the scammers have the borrower sign the contracts they allow the borrower all the time they need to sign every document, which most scammers will have a mountain of useless documents of laws and regulations and other useless jargon to fill the borrower’s head and to distract them while signing the important parts of the contract. For added effect they even might employ a tactic of guilt such as having someone call their phone and the scammer will say “hey son, oh you just finished soccer practice and you missed the bus so you need me to come get you? Okay, I will after I finish with this client. Love you, bye.” Then the scammer will explain and engage in side chitchat that their child is on the school soccer team etc. saying that they are great athletes and very outgoing good kids etc. While the borrower feels bad about making the scammer wait, the borrower will begin to sign the documents faster without thoroughly reading all the terms and conditions. Thus falling prey to the scam. 6. Use Patten (words) to Mislead: Convince people of your lie with words, jargon, babble, technobabble that supposedly explains some effect Use side conversations to distract them acting as if whatever they are explaining to you is the first time you have ever heard of it. Ex of misleading to have people buy a product: ground beef now 97% fat free! Sounds more appealing than “ground beef only 3% fat” even though it is the same thing Ex of word play: “Fresh Frozen” a redundant term to sound appealing. All frozen food is frozen fresh because otherwise the food would be rotten and you cannot sell rotten frozen food. Use patter/jargon to set up tricks and to conceal lies and to explain away how things are done 7. Make it Impossible to See/Find the Truth: Get rid of props/gimmicks/devices that can be used to do the trick/lie Have off limit/restricted areas to hide your explanations If you give a lie or some device make sure that they do not ask to deeply or too much about how something is done or works or allow them to try to figure it out themselves by saying it will break or not work Ex: I sell a device that supposedly cures cancer and I sell it to people and I say that it is an electron detector that uses radio waves to detect and cure cancer by emitting a high frequency that oscillates at nearly undetectable speeds thus affecting cancer cells and causing them to implode from within an spurs the growth of normal healthy cells to take their place (patter). But since the device is extremely sensitive I also tell buyers that it is best they not open it up to see how it works otherwise it will damage the device and not be able to work properly anymore. II. Liars Get Away with the Lie, Why? It’s hard to prove a lie. Control the control(as in a experiment) Set a high bar of tolerance to pass the lie detector(figuratively and literally) People are bad at telling lies and the truth Most people give the benefit of the doubt to others when accused of lying which leads to people being hurt You get cynicism(everyone’s a liar) but not skepticism (he/she is lying) People are uncomfortable at exposing liars, breaks friendships and trust How can you catch a liar? Simple. Ask 3 questions. o 1) What else can it be? o 2) So what…? So what would that mean if it were true? o 3) What is happening? What is there then? What happens next if...? NOV.5 CULTS AND COLLECTIVE DELUSIONS I. Describe the psychological principles underlying social contagions. II. Define and describe the relationship found in a cult. III. Describe how to become a cult member. 1. Social Contagions Groups magnify flimflam(aka b.s.) and social influence Social contagionbelief/practice that goes through society like wildfire and everyone is talking about it or doing it. A new fad or trend. Ex: shuffling, ice bucket challenge, fad diets What causes fads? trends follow an “s” curve that is slow to begin with and few people do and then it rapidly rises and almost everyone is now doing it and then it dies off. Social conformity and social consensuseveryone does something to fit in Grows geometrically A contagion deals with psychological needs ex making a fashion statement “junebug” study women working at a mill are hit with this “junebug” and have crazy hysterical reactions screaming and scratching and jerking around all because the cloth they were working with was supposedly infested with “junebugs” from another country. o People who acted with hysteria had two main causes o 1) had a friend who had “junebug” o 2)were women under extreme stress and emotional turmoil o The “junebug” was their socially acceptable reason to release that tension and stress with screaming and hysteria Dr. Albert Abrams’ Quackery o Video ex of contagion: Dr. Abrams was alive during advancing science with many new innovations in things such as telegraphs, xrays, electricity, radio etc. o He used his credentials for authority; used the mysticism of electricity and radio to make his detect and cure all diseases device seem legitimate. o His device was “able” to analyze and detect any disease from a drop of blood, thus he became famous overnight. o People were willing to accept his devices because of the representative heuristic; it looked like a radio thus giving it credibility as a device that worked. o Dr. Abrams used technobabble to appeal to people’s wishful thinking that his device can cure them o He had doctors pay $200 to buy his device as well as how to use it. This created cognitive dissonance within the doctors who bought it because they now had to believe it was money well spent and that it did indeed cure their patients otherwise they would be frauds. o Thus doctors used selfgenerated persuasion to believe the device worked. o Phantom fixation of being cured was also used. o When the device was put to the test, it was completely inaccurate and wrong. Yet, the doctor always had an excuse and explanation for why it did not work. o Then when it was still wrong the doctor used projection blaming the skeptics that they were just trying to ruin his name and steal his ideas. o Once Dr. Abrams died of pneumonia, it was ironic that his device was unable to detect his illness nor cure it, the device was proven to be a sham. II. Cults Members of a group who have a high degree of dependency upon group/leader for resources such as food, money, selfesteem, selfidentity, information, motivation etc. Cults usually control such resources and control information and decision making Cults usually place members in isolation from the world to control the info members receive When you are a member you have a social identity which gives you selfesteem and warps your thinking that the group is good Creates ingroup/outgroup mentality, us vs. them. Which creates a rationalization trap. Cults create a pattern of social relationships 1. How does one join or get recruited? No one joins a cult; people join groups that have a “special mission” such as spreading peace throughout the world etc. “find the true god” etc. some phantom fixation(unattainable goal) Another example of getting people join is called “heavenly deception” in which sinners are going to die so the group deceives you or tricks you into sinning and you join to either repent or to be “saved” People who are unsure of themselves and have experienced failures, hardships, and difficult/traumatic life experiences and the group makes them feel special and even helps them out if they are in a tight spot. The group gives you a new identity thus having you be more committed, also the group will use footinthedoor tactics and norms of reciprocity and other persuasion tactics to get the new member more involved and committed to the cause. Have new member participate in group bondings and use made up jargon to make them feel special Create dissonance by having the new members do foolish things that create rationalization traps in which they reason why they did something is because they really are a part of the group. Note: A table was given in class on characteristics between Deliberate Persuasion and Propaganda which I have recreated here below with my added notes on certain points. These are patterns that are seen in most social groups. Deliberative Persuasion (Democratic Propaganda (Cults) Group) 1. Coparticipation of leader in discovering 1. Predetermined solution by ruling elite members solutions of group or leader 2. Authority is used to stimulate discussion 2. Authority is used to induce acceptance of predetermined solution 3. A system of checks and balances placed on 3. Leader behavior is not constrained by rules or power of leader and group members other group members, meaning leader has free rein over what to do 4. Reciprocity of influence between leaders and 4. Unidirectional influence from elites, single members; multiple independent of sources of source or colluding sources of information information 5. Decentralized communication structures 5. Centralized communication structures: only one person says what to do 6. Flexible group boundaries and roles that allow 6. Rigid group boundaries and social roles to limit additional resources to be obtained to solve discussion and options problems Ex: In group vs outgroup, social roles, assigned levels of power, clear cut gender roles 7. Minority opinion is encouraged as a means of 7. Minority opinion is censored via neglect, obtaining a better decision; feedback is ridicule, social pressure, or persecution; feedback encouraged is discouraged, a lot of coercion is present 8. Agenda, objectives, and work tasks set through 8. Agenda, objectives and work tasks are set by group discussion elites only 9. Rewards are used to move group towards 9. Rewards are used to maintain group structure objectives and leaders’ status and power 10. Persuasion based on debate, discussion, and a 10. Persuasion based on simple images, careful consideration of options; persuasion as prejudices, and the playing on emotions; discovery persuasion as communication