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Arch 3411 Week 9

by: Emma Norden

Arch 3411 Week 9 ARCH 3411

Emma Norden
U of M
Architecture History to 1750
Robert Ferguson

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Architecture History to 1750
Robert Ferguson
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Norden on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 3411 at University of Minnesota taught by Robert Ferguson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Architecture History to 1750 in Architecture at University of Minnesota.


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Date Created: 11/06/15
Arch 3411 Week 9 11315 Amiens Cathedral France 1220 Nothing is higher than the cathedral Sums up Gothic architecture Triparte triumphal arch with two towers seem to be a Roman stage Row of windows symbolize setting sun main facade always faces west Cathedral is like a city Pointed arches rib vaults spaciousness Conditions of light and incredible height 137 Unlike Roman cathedral Gothic cathedral is brightly lit Depth of wall buttress thrust of vault Cathedral at Durham 1 1151133 Earliest rib vaults seen in nave Very early ying buttresses Abbey Church of SaintDenis lledeFrance 114044 reconstruction by Abbot Suger Generally recognized as the first Gothic building Louie VI called it Capital of the Realm and Religious Center of France French royal monastery burial place of Denis first bishop of Paris Kings of France buried at Abbey Suger wanted to incorporate greater amounts of light in reconstruction and exceed Hagia Sophia s splendidness Radiating chapels of choir each have 2 large stained glass windows made possible by skeletal framework demonstrates Suger s emphasis with colored light Fagade is close to contemporary work of Normandy Transparency of architecture in terms of the ability of light to permeate building starts to emerge Last Judgment is illuminated in center of stained glass windows Light we see is the shadow of the divine light stained glass gives us a visionary experience and its relation to immaterial world Three doorways have carved tympana and jamb statues Quality of space and light in uenced construction of Gothic churches in IledeFrance Page 214 NotreDame Paris 1163 by Bishop Maurice Sully Exception among Early Gothic architecture in its immense size First Gothic building to exceed height of Cluny III Possibly the best known monument in Western Europe Was one of the main symbols against which the French Revolution was directed Foundation was over 30 feet deep showing the intention of building the tallest cathedral Started with choir ying buttresses and transepts added later Double aisles with no chapels radiating out Permeation of light through chapels and aisles from enlarged clerestory windows Expands horizontally as elements are added vertically in plan Thick walls and concealed buttresses were relied on for stability but Notre Dame was first cathedral to have visible buttresses still contains thick walls Flying buttresses began to characterize Gothic architecture also in uenced Medieval architecture Symbolizes aspirations of king and bishop to build a larger and more imposing cathedral for Christ and Virgin Mary West front has a solid militarylike quality Gallery of Kings representing 28 kings of Old Testament is depicted on west facade Rose window with pair of lancet windows on either side forms halo backdrop of the Virgin and Child Sculptures on 3 portals extend Christian teachings to illiterate similar to Romanesque Appears to be very symmetrical but small irregularities in detail make it not so Chartres Cathedral 11341145 Long standing Marian pilgrimage site Was built very fast West facade intact survived fire Original configurations of 3 chapels modified with 4 chapels in between Quadreparte vault encompassing 1 bay instead of 2 simplifies nave Development of piers and colonettes where colonettes come all the way down bringing line of vault ribs all the way down simplifying nave repeated later on in other churches Is an example of 19th century preservation Page 217 Villard de Honnecourt Sketchbook ca 12301240 Sketches relating world to geometry Seems to understand geometric order underlying visible surface Reims Palimpsest XIII C Tracing Elevation drawing Not until recently that scholars work with pinpoint holes to reconstruct geometric structure that makes configuration of facade possible Canterbury Cathedral 117479 When original church burned down in 1174 there was an opportunity to build a proper French cathedral designed by French architect Not a Cistercian church but almost a replica of the original Quadripartite vault comes all the way down Colonettes come all the way down from ribs of vault to oor unifying entire structure amp giving intelligible rhythm to nave only come down at the crossing of vault Colonnettes are darker as well as horizontal divisions Choir design based on French Cathedral of Sens Choir was built to contain England s most popular shrine St Thomas a Becket Some English elements such as the darker Purbeck marble trim which is standard in English medieval construction and emphasizes horizontality Salisbury Cathedral 12201258 British Gothic is stratified reason why it became so universal and how it came about it unknown Page 226 Cathedral at Lincoln 1192 Cistercian cathedral with rectilinear plan Chapter house is where governing body of monastic organization meets is most important part of church Cathedral at Wells 1190 Icon screen on west facade Due to severe Iconoclasm in England statues that used to be on lower level of facade were removed Statues on upper levels are damaged but still there Nave has insistence on horizontal stratification perhaps symbolizes platonic idea that there are different levels of reality Strainer arches were installed in order to keep crossing from collapsing was an engineering solution but eyes and gaping mouth of it give a sinister image in an otherwise charming place Assis San Francesco 122839 Saint Francis preached and practiced extreme poverty and simplicity Franciscans attracted a lot of financial support become necessary to accommodate growing tide of pilgrims to significant sites Accessible on two levels due to verticality of site Lower level is simple and austere so that decoration mostly appears upper levels Gothic architecture shown by ribbed vaults pointed arches and colonettes but could be a Romanesque building as arches are not that big Sainte Chapelle Paris 12411248 added by Louis Added to royal palace as Palace Chapel for relic obtained in Constantinople including Crown of Thorns and part of the True Cross Flying buttresses are unnecessary here Upper level accessible from palace and lower level that is accessible to everyone Chapel on lower level is for servants Upper level consists of slender piers with great expanses of mostly original stained glass between them Windows illustrate stories of Old and New Testament Is a statement of dematerialization of masonry walls and the properties of colored light Campo and Palazzo Pubblico Siena Italy early 14th century Originally 3 separate towns So rugged and vertical that there are only a few limited ways to get around which is why 3 parts form public space or outdoor room to monumentalize unity of town and accommodate population of town Campo is an irregular bowlshaped Two public outdoor rooms that are in dialogue with each other Palazzo Publico public palace or city hall and Cathedral Palazzo Pubblico the town hall is located at lowest part of site but facades of all other buildings had to complement town hall Crenellations and machicolations on top of building and slender bell tower are more modern Bell tower is one of the tallest in Italy and serves as marker for town Page 246 S Maria Novella Florence 1278 Dominican church with plan that is similar to Cistercian Half columns engaged in slender piers of arcade is a reference to classical orders Uses ribbed domical vaults which are braced by hidden buttresses under aisle roofs so that ying buttresses aren t needed Ribs of vaults are polychrome which sets contrast against plain walls Nave has square bays and square crossing and chancel 4 square chapels off transepts give church structural clarity Page 237


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