Classics 20 Week 6 Notes
Classics 20 Week 6 Notes Classics 20
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
11/2/15 Lecture 16: Ovid and the Art of Love ● Publius OVIDius Naso ○ old equestrian family; didn’t really have political connections ○ older brother, one year apart exactly (same birthday and cake) ○ born after Caesar is dead (doesn’t belong to the era of civil war) ○ Augustus is ruling be the time he’s in his teens ○ Quinquatrus (march 1923) ■ holiday to Minerva ■ one birthday but two cakes ○ public career for two sons ■ minor political office in ROme, but abandoned a public career in law ○ death of his brother at a young age may have allowed him to be a poet, because the family resources would not have to be split between them ○ THe Aonian Sisters: Aonia (mountain range in Greece, mythological home of the Nine Muses); urged him to pursue a life of leisure ● Poetry in Rome ○ when Ovid was young ■ a new, younger generation of love poets supported by wealthy and powerful patrons, including Augustus through the agency of his friend Maecenas ■ Vergil is the most prominent but he dies before finishing ○ Epic poetry composed in siv feet, elegiac composed in alternating verses six and five feet ○ Ovid is always conscious of being a poet ○ Rome moved away from epic poetry and towards love poetry (elegiac) during the time of Augustus ○ Ovid makes association with VIrgil, but distinguishes himself ● Elegy ○ illness used a lot by these poets ○ Greek tradition ■ funeral songs, song o f war, arms/warfare, sing of woe (e e lege) ■ themes change>love ○ Gaius Cornelius Gallus ■ born at FOrum Iulii ■ poet and soldier ■ friend of Cicero Vergil and Octavian ■ first to write a collection of elegiac poems ■ “father of Roman elegy” ■ lead the capture of Alexandria and defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra ■ first Roman governor of Egypt ● military campaigns in Nubia ● suppressed rebellion in THebaid ● made king of Ethiopia a Roman ally ● set up inscriptions, statues to himself ● lack of recognition to Augustus ● condemned by Senate in absentia (charges of treason) ● refuses to return to Rome ● commits suicide ■ Poetry of Gallus ● 4 Books of Elegies ● every guy needs a girlfriend in his poetry (and the gf needs to have a name) ● girl in his poeLycoris former lover of Mark Antony ● entirely lost, except for one verse that was copied down (we know it’s his because the girl is mentioned) found in Egypt; praise of Augustus ○ Sextus Propertius ■ born in Umbria near Perusia ■ we have all his poetry (4 bohe Elegie ■ older than ovid ■ younger contemporary than Gallus ■ more of a political bent/antiwar theme ■ love of women and peace ■ girlfriend=Cynthia (associated with Apollo) ■ insists he’s not going to marry or have kids, bold statement for a Roman man ■ sees Actium as civil war, not a great victory ■ no punishment directed against him (no censorship in Rome) ■ dies young ○ Sulpicia ■ only female Roman poet of the classical era ■ daughter of prominent politician ● friend of Cicero ● Roman jurist; consul ● died on embassy to ANtony ● Servius Sulpicius Rufus ■ six short poems ■ found in manuscripts of another poet, under a man’s name ■ boyfriend: Cerinthus ■ not as complex as Ovid ● Poetry of Ovid ○ “The Loves” (Amores) ■ first collection of poetry ■ once in five books, later three ■ concerned with structure ■ Themes: women and sex (very rarely politics) ■ themes of the poems we’re reading: Afternoon sex, advice of old woman, hair, and abortion ■ Corinna: Ovid’s girlfriend ● invented name ● everyone in Rome wanted to know who she is ● not associated with any actual person ● simply Ovid’s creation ● doesn’t appear until Poem 5 ○ “The Art of Love” ■ Ovid’s most ambitions love poem ■ purports to be serious treatise on love in the manner of a learned scholar or serious philosopher ■ basically a seduction manual/sexual handbook ■ uses mythology often ● evaluates mythological women and their appearance and so how they’ll be in bed ● even brings in Dido ■ the poet who taught Rome how to love ■ 3 books ■ first two addressed to men: how to find a woman, how to seduce her, and how to keep her ■ third book addressed to woman: how to get a man, tells women same things he tells men ■ often condemned by modern readers: insincere silliness, light boem, lacking any serious or literary value ■ literary allusions to serious and moral didactic poetry ■ similes of ants and bees ■ parodies Virgil ■ opening ● sets forth what you see ● love is something that can be taught ● seduction is an art form ● amor=love, but also means sex ■ narrator created as master of love (narrator created by poet, not necessarily the poet) ■ digressions and mythological tales ● Rape of the Sabines ● Pasiphae and the cow ● Achilles and Deidamia ■ Political background ● poem came out in 2 BCE ● Emperor Caesar Augustus ● exile of his only daughter; charged with adultery ● real charges: political conspiracy and treason ● Julia the Elder ○ married to Marcellus, he dies ○ married Agrippa, he dies ○ forced to marry again ● exiled to an island Pandateria ● her lover was Mark Anthony’s son, who had been spared by Augustus ○ Iullus Antonius ○ brought into family of Augustus ○ believed to be wanting to overthrow her father to rule together ○ forced to commit suicide ■ ten years later ● Ovid charged with two crimes ● some kind of other scandal ● Augustus banished Ovid ● very likely to do with the fact that Julia the Younger attempts to free Julia the Elder and is also charged with adultery ● sent to an island on the other side of Italy ● Ovid sent to Romania 11/4/15 Lecture 17: Constraints of Gender ● Bradwell vs. Illinois ○ 1872 ○ woman petitioned to practice law in the United States ○ denied by U.S. Supreme Court ● Roman women and Marriage ○ not a choice but an obligation ○ nearly all adult women were married or had been at one point ○ exceptions ■ Vestal Virgins (6 of them, could marry after 30 years) ■ Prostitutes ○ During Republic: women always under control of a man ○ Patria Potestas: the power of the father;; absolute authority of the paterfamilias ■ legal to kill a son, could expose unwanted children ■ word for children means “free possessions” ■ children were completely under the authority of the father, even into adulthood ■ the first Brutus killed his two sons when they plotted to restore the Tarquins, but Vergil laments this choice “a father will call his sons to punishment on behalf of beautiful liberty” ■ in the time of Augustus, a man could free his sons of his legal authority ○ Types of Roman Marriage ■ manus: the hand”; authority of a father over child or slave ● earliest marriages transferanus from father to husband (symbolic and legal act where women became property of another) ■ confarreatioonly for patricians; archaic and most restrictive marriage; Vestal Virgins required parents of this marriage ● in presence of priests (usually Pontifex Maximus or ● 10 witnesses ● sacrifices made ● exchanging of vows ■ coemptio: “purchase” or “sale”; woman sold by her father in symbolic or ceremonious exchange validated by a dowry (money or property to husband’s family) ● manus of woman transferred ■ usus: most common form of cohabitation ● woman stay legally under control of father ● after one year of living together ● if she visited her parents for three nights a year ● dowries, hingeritances, finances ● if divorced, dowry must be returned to wife, if not, husband could be prosecuted for mishandling or theft ● marriages without manus ○ common with plebeians and patricians ○ Marriage Ceremony ■ months of marriage: best month was June b/c Juno was the goddess of marriage ■ days of marriage: middle of the month good, but not fixed days like Kalends, Nones, or Ides ■ The Bride: ● long white tunic, secured by knotted band of wool untied by husband on marriage night ● cloak of saffron (yellow or orange) ● sandals in same chade ● veil, with wreath on top ■ Aldobrandini Wedding: fresco found in Pompeii, imagined wedding ceremony ● gods participating ● Venus ● MOB making sacrifice ● Bacchus as groom ■ pig often used for sacrifice ■ Bride and Groom ● bride escorted to husband’s house ■ Vow: VBI TV GAIVS EGO GAIA (where you go, I go) ■ Reception ■ Procession to husband’s home ● lifted over threshold ● 3 boys escort bride ● flowers ■ husband offer fire and water (necessities of life) ○ Women do not take husband’s name ○ Divorce ■ originally very rare, difficult to obtain ■ 307 BCE: Senator could be fired for divorcing ■ 230 BCE: man divorcing wife bc of lack of children would be shunned ● Legal Restrictions on Women ○ very few legal rights ○ couldn’t vote, hold public office, nor manage own legal affairs ○ Oppian law: austerity measures passed during 2nd Punic War: prevented women from owning too much gold, restricted colors they could dress in, not allowed to ride in fancy carriages ■ tribunes sought to repeal the law after the war ■ women publicly protested ■ Cato the Elder was the voice of opposition ■ law was repealed ○ Voconian Law: restricted amount of property women could inherit ■ suggested that some women were indirectly handling their own legal affairs and property ○ Social legislation of Augustus ■ lots of serious social problems after the civil wars ■ loss of aristocracy; some patrician families extinct ■ fewer marriages, even fewer children; women avoided motherhood ■ Julian Laws on Adultery:became a public crime (used to be crime within the family), and permanent court established ● married men liable if they seduced a married woman ● husbands compelled to take action against wives ● women could no longer be killed if caught in the act of adultery (unless caught doing it in the marriage bed, husband could claim legal insanity) ● women could not accuse husbands with adultery, charge must come from husband of his mistress ● divorce, repayment of dowry, husband forced to remarry, woman may be punished ■ Julian Laws on Marriage: to get people to marry and have kids ● tax incentives for married couples ● tax penalties for unmarried men ● widows had to remarry within one year (later two years) ● if divorced, within 6 months (later 18 months) ■ Julian laws very unpopular; protests against them, most people ignored them; Augustus forced to modify the laws ■ 2 consuls of that year were both unmarried ■ Right of Three Childrennly applied to free roman citizens; if you had 3 children, once they reached a certain age ● males: political advancement, tax perks and legal privileges ● females: free of legal guardian; full independence in legal affairs ■ Ovid’s take: openly does not advocate adultery, acknowledges Augustan legislation (but may not be sincere ● Birth control ○ long spined sea scorpion to block semen ○ olive oil, honey, sap, wool, and head of hairy spider with worms, ○ women used birth control ● Ovid and Abortion: Poem 13 and 14 in Book 2 ● Prostitution ○ prostare “to stand out” on the streets ○ mostly foreign women from the East ○ later registered with aediles and taxed (b/c became a legal business) ○ recognized by clothing colors, makeup, location ○ organized by a pimp (man or woman; Leno or Lena) who owned/rented brothel ■ attracted all social classes, prices different ■ one even catered to male slaves ■ wealthy probably made use of their own slaves ○ Pompeii Brothel Alley ● Cornelia ○ daughter of Scipio Africanus ○ wife of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus ○ mother of 12 children (only 3 reached adulthood, two boys, one girl) ■ sons: were prominent radical tribunes ○ declined offer of marriage to king of Egypt Ptolemy the VIII after her husband died ■ said her life was the education of her children ● Fulvia ○ influential in husbands’ politics ○ wife of Mark Anthony, then Curio, then CLodius Pulcher ○ fought against Augustus, led civil revolt 11/6/15 Lecture 18: All in the Family ● Death of Augustus ○ died peacefully like many of his successors ○ 19th ○ ruled longer than any other Roman ○ Burial ■ Mausoleum of Augustus in Campus Martius ■ Declared a god Divus Augustus ○ outlived those he had hoped would succeed him ○ Assessment of Augustus ■ mixed attitude ■ one: filial duty and national emergency drove him to civil war, positive spin, Rome flourished ■ other: filial duty etc. were pretext, ambition was the real culprit, cheater, bloodstained peace ○ The Real Augustus? ■ opinions vary, times change ■ Augustan Period (16801750): beloved figure in 18th Century England ■ Augustan Revolution: ruthless dictator masking as a great man in 20th century England (b/c of Hitler and Mussolini, and Augustus’s association with him) ■ today: more moderate between benign ruler and fascist dictator ● Problem for Succession ○ wasn’t king, but ruled like one ○ wasn’t emperor or dictator, just asserted the functions of all the important offices of state, and controlled armies, compelled senate and assemblies ○ an early and continual problem ○ Had no sons, only a daughter: Julia the Elder ■ First husband: Marcellus, her cousin, married very young ● Crisis of 23 BCE: illness of Augustus: gave signet ring to Marcus Agrippa, not Marcellus ● Marcus Agrippa: hildhood friend of Augustus ● Marcellus died of a cold that summer, not Augustus ■ Second Husband: arcus Agrippa ● ignoble family ● naval commander at Actium; great general ● fellow consul with Augustus ● dedicated pantheon ● they had 5 children ● 1st two sonsaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, adopted by Augustus as his son ○ Lucius dies in Massilia (modern Marseilles) on his way to armies in Spain (2CE) ○ Gaius dies in Lycia after lingering wound from enemy ambush in East (4 CE) ○ Livi Drusilla: wife of Augustus ■ distinguished Republican family ■ She and Augustus were both married w/ pregnancy when they met ■ Octavian married to Scribonia, who was pregnant with Julia the Elder ■ Livia married to Tiberius Claudius, and was pregnant with her second son Drusus ■ rumors about her: strongwilled, shrewd, “Ulysses in drag”, evil stepmother, obsessed with power, plotted murders of Marcellus Gaius and Lucius? ■ deified 13 years after death ○ Tiberius: eldest son of Livia, successor of Augustus ● Line of Augustus and Livia: Julian Claudians ● Emperor Nero: monster of Rome, tyrannical, few rivals, ○ first persecutor of Christians > “AntiChrist” ○ “enemy of mankind” ○ “poison of the world” ○ Childhood ■ 23 years after Augustus died ■ father: Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (despicable and dishonest) “Bronzebearded family” ■ mother: Agrippina the Younger (greatgranddaughter of Augustus through Julia the Elder ● “if she had been born the man, she would be emperor” ● daughter of man intended to be emperor ● sister of emperor (Caligula) ● mother of emperor (Nero) ■ Caligula was ruling after Tiberius ● very popular at first ● Caligula: “little boots” ● mother charged with adultery, exiled ● father died, ● dangerous times for descendants of Augustus ● put sisters on his coins as goddesses (deified one of them) ● assassinated after 4 years ■ Claudius: emperor after Caligula ● uncle of Caligula and Agrippina the Younger ● married Agrippina, Senate had to pass a special law b/c incest (probably political convenience) ● had a limp, a twitch, and stuttered ● mentally very sharp ● effective ruler ● adopted Nero, married Claudius’s daughter Octavia ○ Seneca: Nero’s tutor ■ recalled from exile on island of Corsica ■ Rome’s most famous orator and philosopher ○ Murder of Claudius ■ poisoned by mushroom offered by his wife at a dinner party ■ offered him one of hers, that had not been tested ■ death of emperor delayed ■ prefect of the Guard show support to Nero ■ Claudius’s son kept under guard ■ Claudius declared a god ○ Nero claimed Augustus as his role model ○ lowered taxes ○ denounced treason charges ○ sought advice of Senate on foreign affairs ○ gave citizens of Rome 40 gold pieces ○ very popular at first (first 5 years=golden rule) ○ Foreign Policy ■ made new settlement in the east ■ invites King of Armenia to Rome ■ good terms with Parthian King ■ Rome at peace during his rule (Temple of Janus closed) ○ Ostia: new harbor of Rome ○ rebuilt the city in many ways ○ Matricide: saw his mother as a threat to his autonomy, she was very popular ■ boating accident, boat made to collapse, sunk in Bay of Naples ■ Agrippina swims to safety (had been exiled on island, so could swim) ■ sends message to Nero that he’s alive ■ soldiers won’t kill her because she’s so popular ■ bribes someone to kill her ■ final words: Ventrem Feri (Strike at my belly (where I gave birth to him)) ■ Nero publicly said that she led a conspiracy against him ■ Remorse of Nero: haunted him for the rest of his life ○ Megalomania of Nero ■ 120ft bronze statue of himself (sun god with his features) a colossos ● survived into middle ages ● Colosseum named for Colossos ■ Neronia: Greek style olympic games named after himself;liked to participate himself ■ Neroneus: Renamed December for himself ■ Neropolis: wanted to rename Rome ● Quo Vadis: movie about Nero
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