Chapter 10 Notes
Popular in Psychology of Adjustment
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Zack on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 21211 at Kent State University taught by John Schell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Adjustment in Psychlogy at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
CHAPTER 10 Marriage and Intignte Relationships RELATIONAL MALADJUSTMENT Addicted Relationships How can you tell if you39re in an addicted relationship Cannot end it even though you know you should Rationalize staying in the bad relationship Experience anxiety and fear When you consider ending it If you do take steps to end the relationship you suffer painful Withdrawal symptoms that can only be relieved through reestablishing contact With your partner What causes addiction Practical Level Financial entanglement shared housing impact on children disruption in academic career or plans Deeper Level Beliefs about relationship Love is forever you are a failure if you end the relationship and beliefs about selfbeing alone is terrible I39ll never find anyone else I39m not attractive or interesting enough Deepest Psychological Level Attachment and separation issuesgtthat determine how you see yourself in relation to otherscomes from parents and how their love and nurturance either fostered independence or neediness RELATIONAL MALADJUSTMENT Infidelity 0 People cheat for many reasons 0 Physical vs Emotional affairs 0 Sometimes you can work through the hurt and mistrust but often you cannot RELATIONAL MALADJUSTMENT Abusive Relationships 0 Intimate Partner Violence Aggression toward those who are in close relationship to the aggressor often occurs because the perpetrator wants to gain power and control over hisher partner 0 It can take many forms Psychological abuse Physical abuse Sexual abuse 0 Two common types are Partner Abuse and Date Rape 0 Partner Abuse often includes these forms of battering physical abuse Kicking Choking Emotional Abuse Humiliation Control Withholding money Sexual Abuse Using sex to control manipulate or demean the other 0 Incidence and Consequences 25 women and 7 men have been physically assaulted by an intimate partner 1 out of 3 high school and college students has been involved in abusive relationship Women are victims 85 of these crimes which are nonfatal and are victims in 75 of murders committed by spouse Victims also suffer from PTSD and are vulnerable to suicide Jealousy and uncontrolled anger were cited as leading causes of relational violence Partner abuse occurs across all racial religious socioeconomic and ethnic groups As many as half the victims equate the violence with love Children who Witness Violence are at risk for anxiety and depression 0 Characteristics of batterers Risk factors With domestic Violence Unemployment Drinkingdrug problems Tendency to anger easily Attitudes that condone aggression High Stress Males Who are exposed to Violence as children 0 Why do women stay Fear of economic hardship No Where else to live Guilt and shame and don39t want to face family and friends Fear that leaVing will cause more severe abuse or murder statistics support this fear 0 Within past 12 months KSU college students supported 205 Verbal Threat 110 Emotional Abuse 72 Stalking 67 Sexual touching Without consent 0 Approx 25 report physical andor sexual abuse THE FAMILY Traditional Model of Marriage 0 Marriage quotThe legally and socially sanctioned union of sexually intimate adultsquot 0 Traditionally also includes Economic interdependence Common residence Sexual fidelity Shared responsibility for children 0 Social trends that challenge quottraditionalquot model of marriage Increased acceptance of singlehood since the 1960s the median age at Which people marry has been increasing Increasing acceptance of cohabitation quotliving together in a sexually intimate relationship Without the legal bonds of marriagequot Reduced premium on permanence Transitions in gender rolesrole expectations are more varied exible and ambiguous Increased voluntary childlessness Decline of the quotnuclear familyquot THE EFFECTS OF DIVORCE 0 affects a significant proportion of society 0 profound and lasting effects 0 routine but stressfultraumaticgtchallenges psychology of adjustment 0 comparable to death sense of loss that comes in the form of an acute crisis followed by disequilibrium 0 may be more difficult voluntary vs involuntary mourning after death is culturally supported less support death cannot be undonegtreconciliation fantasy for divorce divorce holds hope for positive change but it is often not attained 0 Data rate has tripled since 1960 peak hovered around 50 4045 today 40 experience divorce before 18 0 Higher blacksgtWhites lower income couples young age divorced parents 0 Why the increase less stigma religions more tolerant Women work higher expectations to be happy CONSEQUENCES OF DIVORCE 0 Judith Wallersteingtsecond chances 1989 Psychoanalytic perspective Study began in 1971 IntervieW 131 children and parents 60 middle class in Cali 88 Caucasian mostly lst marriage married for 23 years average 11 years average 22 children quotdivorce at its bestquot divorce poses developmental challenges for children security is shaken Worse for children than parents stay together for the children divorced for the sake of the kids the primary feeling is fear most negatively affectedgt68 years profound sense of loss sorrowed sadness feel rejected abandoned unlovable leads to loss and decreased selfesteem feel deprived of childhood and adolescence angry at parents helplesspowerless confused behavioral changes acting out regression problems With relationships After 5 years 13 were well adjusted 13 were still struggling 13 were worse off Time doesn39t necessarily heal wounds worse for boys than girls this may be because girls are better able to adjust their feelings Tasks of divorce for parents ending the marriage mourning the loss reclairning oneself Venture fourth again rebuild lives help for children Tasks for children understanding withdrawal deal with loss work out guilt acceptance take a chance on love 0 There are many factors that affect the adjustment for children mainly support 0 Custody until mid 19th century children were property and custody was granted to the father modern custody law 1817 tender years doctrine late 1800s maternal preference mid 1970sgtbest interest of the child 1st joint custody statute Cali 1979 CHILD ABUSE Problems in Parenting 0 Coercive Cycles Patterns of escalating negative reciprocal interactions 0 Types of child abuse physical abuse sexual abuse physical neglect emotional neglect psychological abuse 0 Some causes of child abuse Parents were abused as children Lack of effective parenting techniques quotDifficultquot children Premature Demanding Hyperactive Mentally Retarded etc Social isolation Fee1ing stressed and overwhelmed quotWe live in a Violent societyquot
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