HIST 1010, Week 12 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 12 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 November 3 2015 Europe in the 16th Century I Continuing Intellectual Ferment The Protestant Reformation a Luther s Central Beliefs b Catholic Counter Reformation II The Political Shifts of 16th Century Europe III The Role of Colonization for 16th Century Europe The Atlantic World Europe Africa and the Americas Today s Questions 0 v What motivated the Reformation in 16th century Europe Why are Europeans starting new churches How did that fact intersect with the development of colonies in the western hemisphere to destabilize Europe politically Continuing Intellectual Ferment The Protestant Reformation 0 Connected to the Renaissance o The Renaissance encouraged people to explore different ways of finding answers to questions despite what the Catholic churches were saying 0 Some questioned the structure of the Catholic church and the structure of the teachings about Christianity 0 Martin Luther 0 Makes a lot of accusations against the church many of which had been circulating for decades if not centuries I Attacking the sale of indulgences o Donations to the church guaranteed an extra prayer to cut time of loved ones in Purgatory down 0 HUGE issue I Priests and bishops in particular were not behaving the way that they should 0 Extravagant lifestyles elaborate churches and households taking mistresses etc I Kings and princes are starting to come up with new quotchurch taxes that just go into the royal treasuries 0 However the Reformation turns on how Luther is talking about theology o Luther s 95 Theses 1517 0 Salvation through faith alone good works are good but not required I Only when Luther started reading the Bible intensely did he feel better and not damned I All of salvation is completely dependent on God I There s nothing you can do to earn it except believe 0 Scripture alone contains the truth of Christianity not Scripture plus Catholic Church teachings Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 I You don t need the teachings of the church to tell you what to do and how to behave o quotA Priesthood of all believers all are equally able have access to God s word on their own and did not require the interventions of a priest I He s not saying that you don t need clergy at all he s saying that all people have the ability to read the Bible and interpret it and follow it on their own 0 Priests and popes don t have extra or special access 0 httpswwwyoutubecomwatch vdt5AJr0wl50 the 95 Theses Rap haha 0 The Reformation brought about a much more personal relationship with God 0 The translation of the Bible was incredibly powerful for many many people I The words ofJesus were far more comforting than the words of the priest I One of the key technological innovations had been the invention of the printing press 0 Got Bibles in people s hands in their languages 0 Catholic CounterReformation 0 Central piece was Council of Trent a series of meetings from 15451563 which reaffirmed church teachings on issues like the role of clergy and the pope the sacraments and the importance of good works But also brought about some changes specifically on issue of corruption within the church I Eventually comes up with a response to the Reformation that flatly rejects all of the theological changes that Luther has put forward 0 Also led to creation of new religious orders most notably the Jesuits who made educating lay people and spreading the Catholic church internationally central aspects of their work I Effective in stopping the spreading of Protestantism I Becoming more involved with every day church people I Starts implementing tools to strike fear into people into behaving religiously o Witch hunts The Political Shifts of 16th Century Europe 0 Political leaders Princes as a group who thought that the pope had too much power flocked to Protestantism 0 They are absolutely not doing however establishing religious freedom I Your Prince the political ruler has a religion either Protestant or Catholic and that is the religion that everyone in the country has to practice I Luther is totally okay with this 0 He thinks that it s the natural order of things that there will be state religions 0 Politics of the Reformation Age 0 Reformation ideas combined with declining standards of living led to peasant wars beginning in the 15205 Some of these transformed into full religiousbased civil wars as happened in France in the 1570805 I Declining standards of living Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 o The postBlack Death stabilization period had led to a rapid increase in the European population 0 The resources couldn t keep up 0 Land and food are scarce 0 Inflation is really high 0 Increases in homelessness and begging on street corners I The warring peasants claim they are fighting for religious reasons I Contribute to the political instability of Europe 0 Who do I owe my allegiance to 0 Also major wars between Catholic and Protestant counties or regions within larger kingdomsempires trying often successfully to break away for religious reasons as the Dutch did when they gained independence from Spain in 1581 o Becoming Protestant also had financial and political benefits for many princes such as Henry VIII of England I Early in his reign Henry VIII was devoutly Catholic I When the pope refuses to annul Henry VIII s first marriage he broke from the Roman Catholic Church and created the Church of England 0 Motives were financial and political not religious 0 Everyone was supposed to be Protestant I Mary who is Catholic assumes the throne and starts rounding up all of the Protestants I Elizabeth a Protestant assumes the throne and rounds up the Catholics I Very unstable time for the English 0 Leads to the weakening of some longstanding European countries 0 Global impact all of the fighting costs money 0 European Princes start sending ships across oceans to look for gold and silver The Role of Colonization for 16th Century Europe 0 Politics Religion and Colonization an Example The Spanish Armada 1588 0 Netherlands ruled by the Spanish and predominantly Protestant have been fighting for their independence for decades 0 The Dutch are getting assistance from Protestant England who are mostly interested in hurting Spanish economically and therefore making it easier to gain a foothold in the western hemisphere to find their own goldbearing colonies 0 Spanish sail armada to English Channel with goal of eliminating English aid to Dutch and stopping English pirates harassment of Spanish ships Terms and WrapUp 0 Martin Luther 95 Theses Spanish Armada 0 What motivated the Reformation in 16th century Europe Why are Europeans starting new churches How did that fact intersect with the emergence of colonies in the western hemisphere to destabilize Europe politically Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 November 5 2015 The Beginnings of the quotNew World I The PreColumbian World a Mesoamerica and the Aztecs b Incas Conquistadors and Encomiendas Spanish Colonization of the Americas Portuguese Colonization and Trade Today s Questions 0 v What were some of the key aspects of Aztec and ncan society before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas How did European colonization alter these dynamics and how did Europeans organize their new colonial possessions The PreColumbian World 0 Story from the beginning of the 1100s 0 The most prominent group of people living in Mesoamerica was the Toltec people I Around present day Mexico City known as the quotValley of Mexico I One of the most fertile and easily farmed areas 0 Very well connected through trade I Trading extensively with the Mayans 0 Evidence of trade as far as Costa Rica I A lot of cultural exchange 0 Farming was huge I In the middle of the 1100s the farming capacity of the Toltecstarts to get overrun o Droughts farther to the north 0 Pushes people farther south into the Valley of Mexico where the Toltec live 0 Successive waves of people come into the Valley of Mexico and eventually sack the Toltec capital 0 Toltec society collapses by the end of the 1100s 0 A number of different groups emerge all of which speak the same language 0 From Toltecs to Aztecs o Toltecs decline in the midtwelfth century due to population increases and invasions due to drought farther north 0 In the wake of Toltec collapse Valley of Mexico settled by many groups of Nahuatl speaking peoples known collectively as Nahuas I All of these different groups settle into the Valley of Mexico and start farming Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 I Although it was the best around for farming there were still problems with drought 0 Develop a farming technique known as chinampas 0 Really interesting floating gardens o In the wetlands that are naturally occurring they would dredge up soil and make little quotislandsquot 0 Crops were close to water even when it wasn t raining I People lived around the canals and got around on canoes I Social structure of daily life 0 The same that the Aztecs used but it predates them the Aztecs didn t invent it 0 See Below 0 One Nahuatlspeaking group the Mexica arrived in the region in the late 12th or early 13th century and eventually rose to dominance in 1428 These are the Aztecs although they did not call themselves that 0 Social Structure of Nahua Communities including Aztec o Citystate model of government with patron god and ruler who served as both high priest and military leader 0 Sexual division of labor men farmed women did child care and wove fabric I Men were also responsible for serving in the military when intercity warfare broke out and it often did 0 Such a strong expectation that education of young boys included it o Warfare a central part of life but with the goals of making other citystate tribute states not conquering them completely I The goals was not to kill a lot of people but making them into citystates that would give you food not usually money and prisoners of war for labor I One of the real cultural sticking points between Native Americans and Europeans 0 Native Americans trying to gain more labor and therefore minimalize casualties o Europeans not so much 0 When they fight tactics that Native Americans use such as ambushing to minimalize casualties are seen as cowardly by the Europeans o Leads to a lot of fundamental misunderstandings and a lot of racism 0 Once the Aztecs come to power they maintain this social system 0 The Aztec Empire is stretching over a pretty large expanse of land by 1500 0 Also extremely populous I As many as 25 million people living in the Aztec empire 0 Consolidating power through marriages between powerful noble families of different citystates to create more political cohesion I Consolidates political power into the hand ofjust a few families Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 0 When an emperor died a new emperor was chosen to lead from the handful of powerful people leadership was not hereditary o The people who are in tribute states have to be happy or they will rebel and that is just what happens I Rebellions cause the central government to spend more money on the military meaning the tribute demand from tribute states becomes greater 0 Vicious cycle of constant rebellion that they can t really get out of o By the time Cortez arrives people are willing to join him 0 The Incan Empire in South America 0 Even larger than the Aztec empire but less populous 0 Unlike the Aztecs the ncans ran a much more centralized government I Territory is divided into provinces each run by a governor appointed by the emperor and coming from an elite class I They all had to pay tribute to the central government but tended to be more land and labor than goods 0 When new land became part of the Incan empire the land owners are require to sanction 13 of the land to the central government 0 Usually for farm land 0 Another 13 of the land you were required to farm to give crop tribute every year 0 The last 13 was all yours 0 The leaders of the Incan empire appear to have tried to try to force individuals to move to more established Incan areas and vice versa in an attempt to create some cultural consistency 0 Trying to have a homogenous culture over a large expanse of land which would have been impossible without their amazing communication system I Incan Road a critical aspect of the centralized Incan government 0 A relay system with a lot of professional runners and weigh stations 0 A relay team could cover about 155 miles a day in the Andes Mountains whoa o In spite of the more centralized government the ncans still had some of the same problems that the Mayans did I Internal dispute eventually resulting in who the new emperor would be after a popular empire with no clear successor died in 1528 I In 1532 Pizarro comes I Bad timing of a lot of political instability right before the Spanish show up Conquistadors and Encomiendas Spanish Colonization of the Americas 0 Definition of colony any region that is under the political control of another country 0 A lot of nonAztec native tribes that are unhappy under Aztec rule willingly help the Spanish overthrow the empire that they are under 0 Translating for them 0 Navigating Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 0 Supply of soldiers 0 Most importantly smallpox I 80 of population of Mexico and the Andes died between 15001600 largely due to disease I Native Americans have no immunity to European diseases I Measles eventually comes and then influenza I In Aztec writings about the downfall of the empire smallpox is in much greater detail than any warfare I Makes it substantially easier for the Europeans to take over because there weren t as many people to fight back 0 The goal of establishing colonies however became more difficult as a result 0 Unlike the English the Spanish are not interested in setting up large settlements of Spanish people 0 They want to extract as much wealth as possible with as few people having to move to New Spain as possible I They have to harvest what little Native American labor is left 0 Encomienda system 0 Gave large land grants called encomiendas to individual Spanish men 0 Each encomendero the head of an encomienda was given power over the Native Americans on his land and was supposed to protect them teach them Spanish and convert them to Christianity I Kind of a feudal system 0 A Lord and people who work for him 0 In practice the main effect of the system was to allow the encomendero to extract labor from Native men and women for free Usually Native men and women under this system were put to work either in farming or in the mines to extract gold and silver I A system that seems to have been designed to mistreat Native American people I There were also Spanish priests coming to convert others to Christianity that speak out against the cruelty but not many 0 Most are not bothered because they are getting what they need out of these colonies Portuguese Colonization and Trade 0 The other earlycolonizing European country 0 Brazil was originally a disappointment 0 Not a large deposit of silver and gold 0 For the most of the 16th century the Portuguese are using their skills as sailors to make themselves the key players in AfroEurasian trade 0 The Portuguese colonies are pretty small and widely dispersed but the Portuguese use all of their established ports to facilitate trade I They would sail into port and attempt to take control of the trade there by running all of the local merchants out of business o If that wasn t successful they would just tax the locals Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 12 0 Using extreme brutality cutting off hands I Proved to be quite effective 0 Gained control of the port cities and developed a pass system to charge people who wanted to dock in their ports I Tax for ship tax in the port 0 Went to the Portuguese government 0 Fundamentally alters the geography of trade I The Red Sea and Alexandria and Cairo and Venice get cut out completely etc o The Portuguese get fabulously wealthy as a result 0 There was a loss of autonomy due to European power Terms and WrapUp o Tribute States ncan Road Smallpox Encomienda Portuguese port city 0 What were some of the key aspects of Aztec and ncan society before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas How did European colonization alter these dynamics and how did Europeans organize their new colonial possession
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