Week 11 lecture notes
Week 11 lecture notes BIOL 3020-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maria Martinez on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3020-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Week 11 Lecture Notes Biology 3020 Circulatory System Components 0 Heart 0 Pump that pushes blood through a series of arteries 0 Arteries 0 Carry blood from the heart to the gills and lungs through the body 0 Branch into the arterioles o Arterioles 0 Small vessels that are found within the organs 0 Branch into the precapillary sphincter can close off and open to stop or allow blood ow 0 Capillaries o Responsible for linking up arterial components to the venule components 0 Leaky uid moves out of them because of the high pressure 0 Have a single epithelium because it is an exchange site 0 Found throughout the capillaries 0 Blood pressure decreases as it goes through the capillaries 0 Venules o drain into veins 0 Veins 0 take the blood back to the heart 0 Lymph vessels 0 Carry uid that doesn39t enter in capillaries 0 Carry lymph uid from toes to the heart 0 Blood 0 Occupies 510 of the body weight 0 in amniotes it occupies 13 of the body weight 0 Consists of I Plasma 0 liquid portion of the blood 0 made up of 1 Blood Proteins I Albumens 0 important in maintaining osmotic pressure 0 Help increase the plasma osmotic pressure to maintain homeostasis 0 Low concentration always moves to higher concentration 0 Na Cl39 Ca K Nutrients 2 Fibrinogens Associated With clot formation 3 Globulin Proteins I Formed Elements Associated With fighting diseases 0 Includes blood cells and cell fragments platelets 1 Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells last from 90120 days Primary function is oxygen transport Oxygen binds to Fe Which is found in hemoglobin In most mammals blood cells are spindle shaped With a nucleus in the middle These cells don t compact as well so blood carrying capacity is low as opposed to a newborn39s unnucleated cells 2 Leukocyte White Blood Cells 0 Hemopoietic Tissues 00000 last about 12 days 2 types 1 Agranulocytes 0 includes monocytes Which eat foreign bodies and leave the blood stream and ow through the tissues and lymphocytes 0 are smooth and lack grooves nonnucleated 2 Granulocytes 0 have mulitlobed nucleus 0 includes I BCells produce antibodies I TCells attack foreign bodies I Neutrophils phagocytic I Eosinophils associated With parasitic or allergic reactions I Basophils involved in producing heparin Which reduces clotting 3 Thrombocytes 0 Associated With clot formation 0 Are large cells that adhere to breakage 0 Cells that function like platelets Blood producing tissues are very delicate Referred to as quotReticular Connective Tissuesquot Contain stem cells have the capacity to multiply and differentiate Within the connective tissues Create a blood island the yolk sac in embryos Important sits for blood production are I Spleen I Kidneys I Liver In mammals 0 Blood cells develop in red bone marrow which is found at the end of long bones the epiphyses I white marrow Produces fat cartilage and bone the growth plate is closes when sex hormones activate I red marrow Produces red blood cells white blood cells and platelets Spleen 0 Attached to left side of the stomach in most except the lungfish o Mammals I Large produces lymphocytes and stores only red blood cells I Responsible for removal of old blood cells I When injury occurs the spleen will release red blood cells into the body 0 Nonmammals I Produced white blood cells Hemal Nodes 0 Associated with blood vessels in the kidney liver and the gut Lymph Nodes o largely a mammalian innovation 0 found in aquatic birds 0 found a long lymph vessels 0 located in the armpits necks groin and along the digestive tract Thymus o Thymus gland is located in the back of the neck 0 Is invaded with lymphocytes the proliferate 0 Has sacs associated with pharyngeal pouches o TCells I the 39T39 comes from thymus as they originate from within thymus 0 Birds I the 39B39 comes from the bursa of fabricius which is a pouch like structure found in caudal bones in birds Heart 0 Develops embryonically into 4 chambers in most vertebrates sinus venosa atrium ventriculus and bulbus cordis corus arteriosus bulbus arteriosus I Sinus venosa 0 initiates heart contraction is the pacemaker of the heart 0 sends blood to the atrium I atrium 0 will subdivide creating the left and the right atriums o Receives blood from the sinus venosa and sends it to the ventricle I ventricle 0 Will subdivide into the left and right ventricle 0 will receive blood from the atrium and send it to the bulbus I bulbus cordis 0 the 4th heart chamber will be called the bulbus cordis only when referring to an embryo o in sharks it will be the conus arteriosus and it called as such because it becomes invaded with cardiac muscle 0 in teleost sh it is called bulbus arteriosus doesn t become invaded with cardiac muscle 0 Circuit systems 0 Single circuit system the blood goes through the chambers to the gills and once it goes through he gills it becomes oxygenated and goes through the dorsal aorta to the other blood vessels blood goes to tail then other organs making its way back to the heart this blood is low in oxygen is occurs in animals without lungs 0 Double circuit system 0 Hagfish Heart blood leaves the heart and goes to the respiratory system and then back to the heart also going to the rest of the body This blood is high in oxygen as it comes from the pulmonary vein the double circuit system prevents the lowly oxygenated blood from mixing with the highly oxygenated blood Present in animals with lungs 0 has 3 chambers sinus venosa atrium and ventricle o No bulbus 0 has accessory hearts little smooth muscle pumps that lack cardiac muscles and are associated with heart and tail that pump blood to the body 0 Lamprey 0 has the typical 4 chambers sinus venosa atrium ventricle and the bulbus 0 Cartilaginous fish and bony fish 0 Typical 4 chambers 0 Lungfish 0 have a double circuit system OOOOO have a single atrium present but it becomes subdivided by interatrial septum Right chamber is larger that the left only some lungfish have pulmonary veins that will carry the blood towards the heart sinus venosa has atrioventricular plugs that help direct blood ow to the ventricle ventricle is subdivided by intraventricular septum o conus has a spiral valve that helps direct blood ow into pulmonary circuit and a systemic circuit 0 Frog Heart 0 pulmonary veins go into the left atrium carrying highly oxygenated blood 0 lack ventricle separation but have projections that extend off the ventricle to produce cavities that will catch the blood that goes by and separate the highly oxygenated blood from the lowly oxygenated blood these are called trabeculae o conus 4th chamber is a tube that houses the spiral valve which directs blood ow regulated by pressure into its appropriate chamber 0 Crocodilian Heart 0 have cavum that allow blood to travel in appropriate directions 0 conus modifies into multiple tissues 0 Turtles and Lizards 0 have cavum 0 Human Heart 0 have a double circuit system 0 during development I the sinus venosa is only present embryonically and will be imbedded onto the right atrium I the remnant of the sinus venosa is the Sinoatrial Node the pacemaker of the heart I the atrium subdivides to the left and right atrium and the ventricle subdivides into the left and right ventricles o vessels I the vena cava ows lowly oxygenated blood into the right atrium I the pulmonary veins ow highly oxygenated blood into the left atrium o valves I atrioventricular valve prevents back ow of blood I pulmonary valve opens when the right ventricle contracts and when it relaxes the blood starts back up the pulmonary trunk causing the valve to close preventing back ow into the ventricular chamber I Aortic valve semilunar valves opens to allow blood to leave the left ventricle as it contracts as it relaxes the valve closes to prevent back ow into the ventricular chamber 0 Purkinje fibers I carry electrical impulses that permit the heart to contract
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