Mammal Characteristics pt 2
Mammal Characteristics pt 2 408
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dani on Friday January 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 408 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Sheriff in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Mammalogy in Wildlife and Fisheries Science at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 01/23/15
12115 Mammal Characteristics Cont d 0 Skeleton o More simplifiedossified 0 Bone growth I Epiphysis where the articular surface occurs 0 Articular cartilage o Spongy bone I Diaphysis the shaft of the bone 0 Medullary cavity 0 Nutrient foramen I Epiphyseal zone or metaphysis cartilaginous zone of growth 0 Skull I Process projection or outgrowth used for muscle attachment I Condyle prominence at the end of a bone roundmost often forming a joint I Foramen opening hole lets blood vessels and nerves pass through I Fossa a depression where muscles sit I Symphysis fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones I Joint articulation between two bones o KNOW BONE CHART IN LECTURE EACH BONE IS FAIR GAME 0 Teeth I Mammalian dentition is heterodont consist of teeth that are different in form and function 0 Incisors o Canines o Premolars o Molars I Teeth occur on the premaxillary maxillary and dentary bones ONLY I 2 sets of teeth 0 Deciduous baby 0 Permanent I May be brachydont short crown hypsodont high crown or hypselodont continuous growth I Patterns cusp of molars o Dilambdodont cusps comprised of quotVquot or quotWquot shapes 0 Bats shrews moles o Bunodont 34 rounded cusps o Pigs bears raccoons humans 0 Lophodont elongated transverse cusps o rodents o Selenodont cusps elongated anterioposteriorly o Ungulates o Sectorial shearing or cutting bladelike carnassials o Carnivores I Dentition patters or formula number of teeth of a particular kind on ONE side of the upper jaw over the corresponding number on the lower jaw o Humans 22 11 22 22 0 Wolves 33 11 44 23 I Diastema space between incisors and molars lacking canines Zoogeography of Mammals 0 Patterns of distribution 0 Latitudinal species gradient I Species mammal richness decreases from the equator to the poles 0 Higher primary productivity 0 More land area 0 North American mammal latitude gradients I Winter temperature I Annual moisture I Frostfree periods I Annual evapotranspiration I Elevation 0 Latitudinal hypothesis OPPOSITE for marine mammals I Food distribution 0 Biogeographical regions SELF LEARNING SLIDES GO OVER LATER o The Wallace Line 0 West of the line Asian fauna 0 East of the line AsianAustralian fauna o The difference I Sea level changes I Continental shelves Sunda and Sahul I Deep trench between Sunda and Sahul shelves 0 The Great American Biotic Interchange 0 Connection of South America into North America via the STHMUS OF PANAMA 0 Huge fauna interchange between the Americas I SA fauna were autochthonous began there and endemic only found there prior to interchange o Unbalanced interchange I South American taxa generally did little diversification and impact in NA I North American taxa radiated explosively in SA 0 Beringia land bridge connecting SiberiaRussia to Canada and NA 0 At maximum nearly 2000km wide 0 Mammoth steppe climate cold arid short grassland with exposed ground Heavy COLD winds 0 Fauna made up of large mammals o How humans migrated to NA 0 Speciation by Vicariance speciation due to geographical separation o Avenues of faunal interchange o Corridors a pathway that offer relatively little resistance to mammal movement 0 Barriers physical things that restrict movement 0 Filter route allows the passage of certain mammals but restrict others 0 Sweepstakes route large long distant movement by chance I Must occur by swimming or flying rafting I Probability is extremely low and decreases as the distance of the route increases