Civil War (cotton, sugar, slavery)
Civil War (cotton, sugar, slavery) HY 325-001
Popular in US World Power to 1898
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday November 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 325-001 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Steinbock-Pratt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see US World Power to 1898 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 11/06/15
Cotton Sugar and Slaves the Civil War in Global Context Civil War 0 In the years preceding the Civil War the North and South began to split along ideological lines 0 Democratic political party also splintered due to issue of slavery pro vs anti factions 0 Election of Abraham Lincoln spark that caused South Carolina to secede o Secession was due to issue of slavery 0 April 1861 shots fired at Fort Sumter gt 1st battle of Civil War 0 Following SC secession more states followed suit 0 After the Civil War broke out the Union and Confederacy tried to court European countries to get military and financial support 0 Focused on Great Britain and France 0 Napoleon III of France leaned more in favor of the Confederacy but refused to make any definitive action wo Britain also taking action I France wanted to est a new French empire in North America looked to Mexico 0 Because France s action depended on Britain the Union and Confederacy focused their diplomacy toward Britain I Great Britain had sympathies toward Southern cause 0 Southern elite identified with British aristocracy 0 Late 1861 US Navy seized the Trent gt ship sailing to Britain w2 Confederate diplomates o Diplomates were arrested 0 This upset Britain as the Trent was a British ship 0 US released the two diplomates and Britain backed down 0 Great Britain unofficial aided the South via shipbuilding o Built cargo ships in Britain gt sent ships to Caribbean to be filled wguns gt go to South 0 Ex CSS Alabama 0 1863 stopped this practice due to pressure by Union 0 British citizens tried to sway British government to support the Confederacy 0 William Gladstone I Liberal British politician proConfederacy I Tried to get MP Lord Palmerston to recognize the Confederacy I 1862 almost gave official recognition to the Confederacy but didn t o Confederates defeat at Battle of Antietam Britain saw that Union was more than likely going to win the war and it didn t want to be caught supporting the losing side 0 Emancipation Proclamation statement of principle regarding US view of slavery and Civil War 0 After issuance Britain saw the War as a fight over slavery I Britain had outlawed slavery and was an antislavery advocate so it s support toward the Confederate cause waned Cotton 0 quotCotton is King 0 Europeans needed cotton for their textile industry I Disruption of cotton trade would harm Europeans economy 0 Economic reliance on cotton one reason why Europeans leaned toward Confederacy 0 Cotton diplomacy gt use cotton as a leverage to get concessions or support from Europeans 0 Use cotton as leverage to make Europeans choose Confederacy over the Union 0 South embargoed cotton trade to Europeans to show them how important cotton was to their economies 0 Problems stymied purpose of embargo I Britain and France had small cotton reserve piles so embargo wasn t effective I Britain and France could trade with the North and other locations to get cotton Civil War s impact on global commodity trade 0 Cotton 0 Due to the South s embargo of cotton Northern states and European states looked elsewhere for cotton I Looked to South America Africa and Asia 0 Egyptian cotton trade grew in importance 0 Lots of land in the Lower Nile devoted to cotton production 0 Cotton production changed ecological landscape of Egypt I The new cotton producing areas experienced changes in their economies o For Britain pre186O cotton from the South but post1865 cotton from its colonies 0 Cotton laborers in these new production areas where enslaved but instead were stuck in a system of debt peonage I Perpetual cycle of debt to a land owner gt tenet farmers tied to the land owner I Debtor has to pay off debt via work but debt always accumulates to there is no end to the amount of work to pay off the debt I Free but unfree 0 Sugar o In US production of sugar was concentrated in the South primarily in Louisiana During the Civil War sugar production decrease and so did prices PostCivil War sugar production was never able to fully recover Because sugar was slumping in the US during the Civil War sugar began to be produced in Hawaii I 1861 King Kamehameha lV declared neutrality toward the Civil War I Koloa Sugar Factory had been established in H in 1841 by American producers I Hawaiian sugar production increased when Louisiana s sugar production fell due to the War I 1862 sugar became the main economic commodity of Hawaii 0 Unseated previous main economic commodity of whalingwhale trade I Sugar laborers Japanese Chinese Filipino OOO o Diverse labor pool Hawaii became cosmopolitan population increased I Expats US citizens living in Hawaii who were involved in sugar production 0 Ex Samuel Chapman Armstrong 0 Son of missionaries in Hawaii 0 Fought in Civil War I Commanded an AfricanAmerican regiment o PostCivil War est Hampton Institute I School for freed blacks I Modeled on school in Hawaii to educate nonAmericans about American ways and craft skills 0 Created a transAtlantic link via education of nonwhites education of Hawaiians and AfricanAmericans Political Changes due to Civil War 0 Mexico and Mexican Civil War 0 President Benito Juarez gt liberal at odds wconservatives and the Church I Suspended debt payment to foreign lenders 0 Upset Napoleon III of France who planned to forcibly make Mexico repay its debt 0 Gained support of Britain and Spain 0 Joint force of FranceBritainSpain formed to force debt repayment 0 France tried to get US to join but US refused 0 Instead said that it will allow the repayment action but with stipulation that FranceBritain do not try to establish colonies as that would violate the Monroe Doctrine o 1862 Britain and Spain dropped out of the joint force coalition 0 France acted alone in forcing the debt repayment o Kicked out Juarez established a puppet government and put Austrian Archduke Franz Maxilian in charge 0 Union victory in Civil War no establishment of a Confederacy sympathetic toward French causes so Napoleon abandoned idea of new French empire in Mexico 0 However Maxilian did not want to give up power I Juarez s supporters killed Maximillian and Juarez re exerted power Legacy of Civil War 0 Destruction of slavery o Passage of 13th 14th and 15th amendments 0 13th Amendment abolished slavery 0 14th Amendment citizenship to all those bornnaturalized in US 0 15th Amendment granted voting rights to AfricanAmericans o Amendments were meant to help the position of slaves and freed AfricanAmericans 0 Reconstruction in the South 0 PostCivil War period where ruleslaws were established defining how and under what terms seceded Southern states could rejoin the Union Key Words 0 Trent Affair 0 King Cotton 0 CSS Alabama 0 Lord Palmestone 0 William Gladstone o Antietam o Emancipation Proclamation 0 King Kamehameha IV 0 Samuel Chapman Armstrong 0 Benito Juarez 0 Napoleon Ill 0 Ferdinand Maxilian 0 13th 14th and 15th Amendments
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