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Psychology Week 9 Notes

by: Meagan

Psychology Week 9 Notes Psych 2010

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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be on exam 3.
Introduction to Psychology
Aimee A Callender
Class Notes
Psychology, Social Science, Humanities
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 03/27/16
Language and Thought: Chapter Do animals exhibit language?  Animals can communicate  Apes o Washoe (1965-2007)  Learned 181 signs by 32 years o 1970s  Apes use gestures o Some cases  Combine words creatively o Language is like a 2 year old child  Much more effort for apes  Trying to figure out if it is mimicking or not o What do humans do that is so different?  Structure, development, language and thought interact  Complex  Essential for humans to think Language structure  Phonemes o Basic sounds o Can change meaning o The word over = 4 phonemes  Morphemes o Basic unit that carries meaning o Can be entire word or parts of words (prefixes, suffixes, etc.) o The word puddle = 1 morpheme  Grammar o System of rules that specify how units of language can be combined meaningfully o Morphological rules  How morphemes can be combined to form words o Syntactical rules  How words can be combined Language Development  Receptive language (hear or seen) o 4 months  Discriminate sounds o Voice onset time o 7 months  Segment speech o 6-10 months  Understand words/simple requests  Rapid increase in understanding o 12 months  50 words o 18 months  200 words o McGurk Effect  Speech perception and vision interact  Auditory allusion  Hearing interacts with seeing  Productive Language o 4 months  Babbling stage o 10 months  Babbling resembles native language o 12 months  1 word stage (actually communicating; say a need)  Sounds carry meaning o 18 months  Learn 1 word/day  Overextension = ex: all animals are dogs o 24 months  2 words stage  Telegraphic speech  Ex: want juice, big doggy, my toy  Reading comprehension o Phonics  Learn all different sounds and how to combine them (breakdown) o Whole language  Learn to produce and hear in natural way  Reach a limit because don’t know how to decode a word  Theories of Language Development o Operant learning (Skinner)  Association (things with words)  Imitation (others’ words and syntax)  Reinforcement (praise and smiles)  Doesn’t account for how all part of language is learned  Problems  Acquire untaught words/generate novel sentences  Parents don’t reinforce grammar  Children’s errors are overgeneralizations (not simply imitation) o Nativist Theory (Chomsky)  Language acquisition device  Universal grammar  All languages have same building blocks  Critical period  Deaf children with cochlear implants o 2yrs to 4 yrs  Late exposure to language o 2 or 3 yrs = still okay o 7 yrs = lose ability to master language  2 language learning more difficult o Interactionist Approach  Innate ability and social interactions Language and Thought  How do language and thought interact?  Linguistic Determinism (one thing determines another) (Whorf, 1956) o Language shapes ideas o Bilinguals  Different self-description on language o As name for colors develop, memory for colors improve Thought  Rational choice theory o Chance x payoff = expected gain o Prospect theory  Risk averse, don’t like losses o Rational root vs. heuristic approach  Based on your individual characteristics  Algorithm o Well defined procedure that guarantees a solution  Problem = time consuming  Heuristics o Rule of thumb o Fast and efficient, may not produce correct/best answer Using Heuristics  Use base rates to see what is more likely  Representativeness Heuristic o Judging likelihood in terms of how well they represent prototype o More likely an option if more representative o Prototype  Best or most typical member of category  Possess most or all of the features of the category o Exemplars  Deviate from typical member of category  Conjunction fallacy o Think that 2 events are more likely to occur together than either individual event  Tversky & Kahneman o 89% found conjunction more probable than single event  Availability Heuristic o Base judgements on how readily available it is in memory o Infer frequency based on ease of retrieving info  Framing Effects o Way one frames a situation affects judgements o Can make it look risky or not o Context or phrasing of problem that lead to different answers o Immediate prospects of dying are emphasize in second framing o Sunk-Cost Fallacy  Decision based on what you previously invested in the situation  Prospect Theory o Kahneman & Tversky (1979) o Loss averse o Perceive loss, take risk to recoup o Perceive gain, avoid risks to protect gain Problem Solving  Problem presented o Solution not immediate or obvious o Uncertainty  Difficulties o Mental set  Constrain solution too much  Matchstick problem  Given picture with 6 sticks, make 4 triangles  Make it 3D (no0t an initial thought) o Functional Fixedness  Object viewed in terms of most common use  String problem  2 strings hang from ceiling, stand in between them and tie them together  Use a pendulum with the paintbrush to get them to reach  Candle Stick problem (Duncker’s problem)  Support a candle on a door using a box of tacks, matches and candle  Take all tacks out, attach box to door and put candle in the box


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