Psychology Week 9 Notes
Psychology Week 9 Notes Psych 2010
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 2010 at Auburn University taught by Aimee A Callender in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
Reviews for Psychology Week 9 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 03/27/16
Language and Thought: Chapter Do animals exhibit language? Animals can communicate Apes o Washoe (1965-2007) Learned 181 signs by 32 years o 1970s Apes use gestures o Some cases Combine words creatively o Language is like a 2 year old child Much more effort for apes Trying to figure out if it is mimicking or not o What do humans do that is so different? Structure, development, language and thought interact Complex Essential for humans to think Language structure Phonemes o Basic sounds o Can change meaning o The word over = 4 phonemes Morphemes o Basic unit that carries meaning o Can be entire word or parts of words (prefixes, suffixes, etc.) o The word puddle = 1 morpheme Grammar o System of rules that specify how units of language can be combined meaningfully o Morphological rules How morphemes can be combined to form words o Syntactical rules How words can be combined Language Development Receptive language (hear or seen) o 4 months Discriminate sounds o Voice onset time o 7 months Segment speech o 6-10 months Understand words/simple requests Rapid increase in understanding o 12 months 50 words o 18 months 200 words o McGurk Effect Speech perception and vision interact Auditory allusion Hearing interacts with seeing Productive Language o 4 months Babbling stage o 10 months Babbling resembles native language o 12 months 1 word stage (actually communicating; say a need) Sounds carry meaning o 18 months Learn 1 word/day Overextension = ex: all animals are dogs o 24 months 2 words stage Telegraphic speech Ex: want juice, big doggy, my toy Reading comprehension o Phonics Learn all different sounds and how to combine them (breakdown) o Whole language Learn to produce and hear in natural way Reach a limit because don’t know how to decode a word Theories of Language Development o Operant learning (Skinner) Association (things with words) Imitation (others’ words and syntax) Reinforcement (praise and smiles) Doesn’t account for how all part of language is learned Problems Acquire untaught words/generate novel sentences Parents don’t reinforce grammar Children’s errors are overgeneralizations (not simply imitation) o Nativist Theory (Chomsky) Language acquisition device Universal grammar All languages have same building blocks Critical period Deaf children with cochlear implants o 2yrs to 4 yrs Late exposure to language o 2 or 3 yrs = still okay o 7 yrs = lose ability to master language 2 language learning more difficult o Interactionist Approach Innate ability and social interactions Language and Thought How do language and thought interact? Linguistic Determinism (one thing determines another) (Whorf, 1956) o Language shapes ideas o Bilinguals Different self-description on language o As name for colors develop, memory for colors improve Thought Rational choice theory o Chance x payoff = expected gain o Prospect theory Risk averse, don’t like losses o Rational root vs. heuristic approach Based on your individual characteristics Algorithm o Well defined procedure that guarantees a solution Problem = time consuming Heuristics o Rule of thumb o Fast and efficient, may not produce correct/best answer Using Heuristics Use base rates to see what is more likely Representativeness Heuristic o Judging likelihood in terms of how well they represent prototype o More likely an option if more representative o Prototype Best or most typical member of category Possess most or all of the features of the category o Exemplars Deviate from typical member of category Conjunction fallacy o Think that 2 events are more likely to occur together than either individual event Tversky & Kahneman o 89% found conjunction more probable than single event Availability Heuristic o Base judgements on how readily available it is in memory o Infer frequency based on ease of retrieving info Framing Effects o Way one frames a situation affects judgements o Can make it look risky or not o Context or phrasing of problem that lead to different answers o Immediate prospects of dying are emphasize in second framing o Sunk-Cost Fallacy Decision based on what you previously invested in the situation Prospect Theory o Kahneman & Tversky (1979) o Loss averse o Perceive loss, take risk to recoup o Perceive gain, avoid risks to protect gain Problem Solving Problem presented o Solution not immediate or obvious o Uncertainty Difficulties o Mental set Constrain solution too much Matchstick problem Given picture with 6 sticks, make 4 triangles Make it 3D (no0t an initial thought) o Functional Fixedness Object viewed in terms of most common use String problem 2 strings hang from ceiling, stand in between them and tie them together Use a pendulum with the paintbrush to get them to reach Candle Stick problem (Duncker’s problem) Support a candle on a door using a box of tacks, matches and candle Take all tacks out, attach box to door and put candle in the box