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Date Created: 01/23/15
PSYSSO Lectures 3amp4 1 How social psychologists practice in the eld 8C some of their techniques a Descriptive methods Attempts to measure behaviors thoughts and feelings b Experimental tools Manipulating social processes by varying situation aspects Lab settings independent and dependent variables c Ethical Issues 2 Methods used by social psychologists a Descriptive methods Useful in determining correlation i Naturistic observation Involves watching behaviors as they unfold 1 This is spontaneous however it has its down sides a Humans don t report they can t report because this is supposed to be natural the researcher can only be observing 2 Researchers presence may interfere with natural behaviors because they know that the researchers are present so this may alter behavior ii Case studies can be done using this method to allow an intensive examination of a single person group 1 Charles Manson 2 Johnstown Massacre a Case studies allow for studies of rare behavior however they are observer biased The observer can omit what they see and don t see b You cant generalize based on the data from the case studies iii Archives You don t have to collect data all the data is already there However the downside to archives is that many of the social behaviors are never recorded You can t edit this data iv Surveys 1 Not representative of the whole group 2 Can be biased 3 Degree of lies can be present v Psychological tests Abilities to Asses individual s abilities cognitive abilities personality etc 1 These tests may be very unreliable implying something but measuring something else 2 Results may be reliable but not valid Meaning that they re not measuring actual characteristics they re designed to measure 3 Causation 8C Correlation a Definitions i Correlation Extent to which two or more variables are associated with one another ii Correlation Coefficient Mathematical expression to describe correlation 1 O or 1 iii Correlation does not imply causation 1 Causality is measured by experiments a But even so many factors can play a role in experiments that in uence the outcome it is never known but it is a pretty good implication b Experimental results based off the real world i Kitty Genovese 8C Social Psychology 1 Serial killer murdered her in front of 30 homes 2 Not one called the police how come ii This lead to the theory of diffusion of responsibility 1 Everyone figured since they live in a populated area someone surely must of called the police so therefore it was not necessary to call the police 2 If everyone thought this then no one would be calling the police at all 3 This example cannot be ethically recreated in a laboratory but we can learn from this situation what happened that night iii Experiments in the lab have 1 An independent variable this is a variable the researcher has control over and manipulates to examine the different results as a manipulation of this variable a Only downfall this environment is very artificial this isn t real life b The lab may have confounds Confounds are variables that may affect the independent variables and change the outcome of the experiment End Lecture 3amp4