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Soto Biochem 11/5

by: Kayli Antos

Soto Biochem 11/5 CHEM 351

Marketplace > Towson University > Chemistry > CHEM 351 > Soto Biochem 11 5
Kayli Antos
GPA 3.37
Ana Soto

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Chapter: Lipids And Membranes Topics: Triacylglycerols, Triacylglycerols, Oil And Food, Structural Lipids, Glycerophospholipids, Galactolipids And Sulfolipids, Sphingolipids, Sterols, Cell Membran...
Ana Soto
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayli Antos on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 351 at Towson University taught by Ana Soto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Biochemistry in Chemistry at Towson University.


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Date Created: 11/07/15
o Lipids N N 0 0 0 0 0 N N 0 G G G G 0 Oil 0 N N 0 N N 0 0 G N N Biochem Soto Fall 2015 And Membranes Triacylglycerols Three fatty acids esterified to the same glycerol Nonpolar and hydrophobic Form oily droplets in the aqueous cytosol of eukaryotic cells Adipocytes store large amounts of them The cells contain enzymes to catalyze their hydrolysis and release the fatty acids so they can be used asfueL The deprotonated oxygen of the fatty acids are linked to the glycerol The methylene groups are more reduced than the alcohol groups of carbs so they ca release more energy when they re oxidized Triacylglycerols Store Enerqy Advantages of storing energy as fat are Oxidation of fats gives more energy than the oxidation of carbohydrates Unhydrated so the organism doesn t have to carry the weight of the extra water When stored under the skin they can serve as insulation It s not very reactive so large quantities can be stored without side reactions occurring More energy is stored as fat but carbohydrates are a quicker source And Food Triacylglycerols containing only saturated fatty acids are solids at room temperature Vegetable oils are made of unsaturated fatty acid triacylglycerols and are liquids at room temperature Can be converted to solids through hydrogenation Intake of trans fatty acids can lead to a higher possibility of cardiovascular disease They increase the levels of bad cholesterol and decrease the levels of good cholesterol Structural Lipids Membrane lipids are amphipathic They pack into sheets called membrane bilayers Some types are glycerophospholipids galactolipids and sulfolipids archeal tetraether lipids sphingolipids sterols lecerophotholipids 0 Two fatty acids attached to the first and second carbons of a glycerol The third carbon has a polar molecule connected through a phosphodiester linkage The polar group can have any charge 0 One chain is usually short and the other has double bonds z Galactolipids And Sulfolipids 0 Galactolipids have two fatty acids on carbons one and two of the glycerol The third carbon has one or two galactose residues 0 ln sulfolipids the third carbon has a sulfonated glucose residue 0 Usually found in plant cells z Sphingolipids 0 Have a polar head and two nonpolar tails no glycerol 0 Contain one sphingosine long chain amino alcohol one long fatty acid and a polar head 0 3 subclasses e Sphingomyelins phospocholine as the polar head 9 Glycosphingolipids one or more sugars connected to the ceramide moiety 9 Gangliosides have oligosaccharides containing one or more N acetylneuramic acid residues 0 Many are found in the plasma membranes of neurons and are thought to serve as recognition sites The carbohydrate moiety of certain sphingolipids define blood groups Gangliosides are highly concentrates on outsides of cells and cat as points of recognition for extracellular molecules or neighboring cells z Sterols Present in most eukaryotic cells membranes Contain a steroid nucleus of four fused rings This is almost always planar and is rigid Cholesterol is the major sterol in animal tissues Contains an alcohol group as the polar head Can also be precursors for molecules with specific biological activities z Cell Membranes 0 Are flexible selfsealing and selectively permeable 0 Contain proteins that catalyze cellular processes 0 Also contain polar lipids and carbohydrates z Membrane Architecture 0 Proteins are integrated in the lipid bilayer and held by hydrophobic interactions 0 Called a fluid mosaic because since interactions are noncovalent the molecules can move laterally z Membrane Proteins 0 Integral proteins are held in the membrane by hydrophobic interactions between the membrane lipids and hydrophobic domains on the protein gt9 5 5 gt9 0 Peripheral proteins are held on the membrane by electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonding with hydrophilic domains of integral proteins and polar heads of membrane lipids 0 Some proteins may also be covalently bonded to lipids z Integral Proteins 0 Have a specific orientation in the bilayer 0 An ghelix 2025 residues long can span the bilayer which is typically about 30 A long If there are 20 or more hydrophobic resides together one can assume that it is an integral protein z Transmembrane Domains Some have one hydrophobic domain others have multiple To maximize hydrogen bonding within lipids the polypeptide sequence will form ghelices or Bsheets Tyr and Trp are usually found at the lipidwater interface Positively charged membranes are common on the inside of the membrane z Topology Of Integral Membrane Proteins 0 Bsheets don t maximize interchain hydrogen bonds but Bbarrels do Twenty or more transmembrane segments will form Bsheets that line a cylinder Every other amino acid should be nonpolar To remove an integral protein from a membrane add a detergent like SDS to replace the lipid bilayer on the sides of the protein z Lipids Anchor Some Membrane Proteins 0 Some proteins will contain one or more covalently bonded lipid This acts as a hydrophobic anchor in the lipid bilayer to keep the protein at the membrane surface 0 Another type of anchors is interactions between positive residues and negatively charged lipid heads 0 These can also be removed by addition of a detergent z Peripheral Membrane Proteins 0 Attached to membrane through electrostatic interactions 0 Can remove them by adding a salt because it has charges 0 Can also change the pH to denature the protein z Biological Membranes 0 Flexible can change shape without losing integrity This is due to noncovalent interactions among lipids and their resulting mobility 0 At low temperatures lipids form a semisolid liquid ordered state where lipid motions are very restricted 0 At high temperatures fatty acids are in constant motion in a disordered state gt9 gt9 0 0 0 Physiological temperature long chain saturated fatty acids will form a liquid ordered state but short fatty acids and kinked unsaturated fatty acids will prevent packing 0 Sterols disrupt membranes by inserting between lipids in the bilayer by going between lipids and interacting with them leading to a decrease in intralipid interactions 0 Will also force lipids closer together and restrict the chains movement z Transmembrane Movement 0 At physiological temperature flip flop diffusion occurs very slowly 0 Some proteins can facilitate this by providing a pathway that is more energetically favorable 0 Individual lipid molecules can move laterally in the same plane This movement occurs quickly and tends to be random z Membrane Protein Diffusion 0 Some membrane proteins associate with each other in order to form aggregates where the proteins don t move relative to each other 0 Other membrane proteins can be anchored to internal structures which prevents their movement lmmobile proteins will form fences which restrict the motion of lipids z Membrane Rafts Glycosphingolipids can form transient clusters in the outer leaflet Long chains of sphingolipids are able to form stable associations with cholesterol These cholesterolsphingolipid microdomains are thicker and more ordered than the neighboring phospholipid domains These segregations of membrane proteins in lipid rafts may increase the possibility of protein collisions z Solute Transport Across Membranes 0 Cells need raw materials from outside the cell and must also release byproducts of metabolism 0 Polar or charged molecules need the assistance of proteins to cross the membrane because they cannot diffuse 0 Usually transmembrane channels carriers or pumps z Electrochemical Gradient 0 When opposite charged ions are separated by a membrane an electrical gradient will form The membrane potential is represented by Vm 0 The movement of charged solutes is dependent on an electrical gradient and a chemical gradient This makes an electrochemical gradient 5 5 5 gt9


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