Week 11: Meiosis II and Mendelian Genetics
Week 11: Meiosis II and Mendelian Genetics Bio 107
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Johnson on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Meiosis II Genetic Terminology v Gene coding sequence in a particular region Humans have 22000 roughly 1000 per chromosome v Allele particular copy variant of a gene Inherited from mother or father Can have slight DNA variations One is classified as mutant and the other as normal Definitions of mutant and normal vary 339 Heterozygous two different alleles 339 Homozygous two identical alleles 100 identical in regards to protein coding v Genotype alleles possessed of a certain gene DNA sequence of an organism v Phenotype appearance function of living things observable traits Law of Segregation 339 Analysis of one gene on one chromosome 0 v Each gamete only carries one allele of each gene Two alleles in a heterozygous parent will segregate from one another in the gametes Law of Independent Assortment 339 Analysis of two genes on two chromosomes 0 v Segregation of homologues of one chromosome will not affect the segregation of other chromosome homologues Crossing Over Linkage of Genes 339 Analysis of gene alleles on the same chromosome 339 Recombination occurs randomly May or may not happen between any two genes 0 v Chances increase if the genes are farther apart 0 v Linkage a particular combination of alleles that are inherited together due to their close positioning on the chromosome Mendelian Genetics I Genetic Mapping 0 v Depends on a gene and a specific region of a chromosome being linked 0 v Markers small pieces of genome that have specific properties Introduction 339 Prior to Mendel Blending hypothesis Traits of the parents were blended so offspring showed a mix of both Once blended traits could not be unblended Preformationism 339 Mendel Originally worked with mice before pea plants Pea plants Several varieties available Easy to self and cross fertilize Relatively fast generation time Produce many offspring Some discoveries Alternate versions of genes alleles Diploid two alleles for each gene One from each parent Two types of alleles Dominant vs recessive Laws of segregation and independent assortment Mendel s First Law Law of Segregation 339 Terms P generation parental two different purebreds crossed F1 generation hybrids first filial offspring of the P generation F2 generation from the self cross of F1 true breeding breeding two of the same species that lead to offspring that look the same Genotypic ratio observed ration of alleles in offspring Phenotypic ratio observed ratios of observable traits in offspring Mendelian Genetics II Punnett Square 0 v Used to predict possible genotypes of offspring Mendel s Second Law Law of Independent Assortment 339 Dihybrid cross A cross used to observe two traits Trying to determine if the genes were inherited together 0 v Conclusions All possible phenotypes were seen Completely obliterated blending hypothesis Traits aren t always inherited together Law of independent assortment two different genes assort independently during gamete formation Exceptions 0 v Incomplete dominance Neither allele is completely dominant Heterozygotes have an intermediate phenotype follows blending hypothesis Ex carnations Pedigree Analysis 0 v Measuring traits phenotypes observed in families 0 v Patterns of allele inheritance Sex linked occurs on the sex chromosomes Autosomal occurs on any other chromosome 0 v Dominance Relative effects of normal and mutant alleles dominant or recessive