World History- November 2-6
World History- November 2-6 HIST 1010 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1010 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Donna Jean Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see World History I in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
World History November 26 French Absolution Absolutism complete control all laying in the hand of one person and is not shared the divine right of God usually is what allows this monarchies were not absolute in their powers developsevolves over the course of three reigns in France II Henry IV He was the rst of the Bourbon monarchs Protestant who came to the throne during the middle of the religious civil wars By ending the wars and restoring order he begins to build a more powerful state After time he realized that he needed to become Catholic to rule in his position The edict allowed religious toleration for the Protestants The reforms didn t occur after the end of the war His righthand man Sully was the man who helped control the economic part of France He set about trying to balance the budget since they were in debt from war He gave Henry an allowance to spend only a certain amount Additionally he decided that tax collection was an issue as well because many of the thirty provinces had different ways of controlling taxes Often times the southern providences were paying less than the northern providences His plan was to have a uniform system throughout France He knew he had to go about this gently and one province at a time He started with two provinces where Henry was popular He introduced tax collectors to two southern provinces and conform it to the rest of France However they didn t get the chance to continue this because Henry IV was assassinated in Paris France by someone who was still angered by the edict SIGNIFICANCE Henry s reforms were done for the health of the monarchy and his works with Sully were done quite well If he hadn t of been assassinated a absolute monarchy probably would have appeared quicker Louis XIII The issue was that Henry s son was nine Louis XIII so they had to establish a regency which was where someone ruled in place of the heir until the rightful heir could take the throne Henry s wife took the throne Her name was Marie Medici This in itself was a setback to the revolution of absolutism Though Sully had balanced the budget well she squandered it because the throne was very shaky under her being a regency She basically undoes everything Sully and Henry had contributed Louis did not have a great relationship with his mother so he eventually cast her out of control He then forms a close relationship with a man named Richelieu Together they decided to address the issue of the Protestants The Protestants had been rebelling again because Marie was ruling with a very large Catholic and Spanish bias They decided to end the Protestant threat permanently At the city of La Rochelle a Protestant see port city soldiers were called to defeat and slaughter the Protestants They also decided to change the Edict of Nantes They sent out Indendants appointed by Richelieu whose job was the spy and tell him what s going on all around France to know about possible rebellion They came to be known as the thirty tyrants of France III Richelieu died and then so did Louis Another regency occurred ve year olds mother became the monarchial ruler named Anne of Austria SIGNIFICANCE A reform to absolutism was pushed back because of the regency but Louis XIII was pushing it into that direction majorly by sending out intendants This created a spy for the nobles who may have been plotting against the throne Louis XIV Anne of Austria ruled with a right hand man and lover named Mazarin Fronde Civil war started by the nobility of France who resented absolutism and having the intendants spying This was also supported by peasants who resented the tax burden This ended after ve years This does two things for absolutism 1 It scared the people into submission and many people came to believe is the alternative to anarchy is a strong central government 2 It also shaped the perceptions of Louis XIV because he decided that never again would this corruption and uncontrolled under the throne be present Louis decided on personal rule When Mazarin died he decided that he would have ministers but there would not be a speci c righthand man and that he would make all of the important decisions Reforms 1 He decided that the nobility was the biggest issue to the throne He builds a famous palace in Versailles as a gilded cage which could house about ten thousand people He told the people if they wanted to be a noble they needed to live there This took them away from their normal places where they were largely accepted He made a system of manners and protocol and if you did something wrong you would become out of favor of your family and the king They always were sizing up their ranks to others in the room to make sure they were acting appropriately Also he made proximately to him a competition This is how he kept nobles under control It was very ingenious 2 He also reform his armies He wanted a large standing ef cient loyal army He creates this and reforms it to assure that every commander in the army had a leader above him who would spy and keep order He also made uniforms throughout the whole army that would assure what side they were on as well as instilling loyalty He created the rst veteran s hospital These wars were successful until the end 3 There was still a minority group on nonconformists He revoked the Edict of Nantes He took away toleration to gain complete control Many ed France to go the England Netherlands etc SIGNIFICANCE Louis XIV was very ingenious in his endeavors to form a more controlled monarchy By distracting the noblemen he could control them Additionally by lifting the Edict he caused many Protestants to ee because they were no longer tolerated in any way This was the basic foundation of the society of absolution Constitutionalism in England England and the low countries saw the government of constitutional monarchylimited monarchy instead of going after a absolute monarch A constitutional monarchy is where the monarchy still has power but has limits such as a representative assembly ex Parliament 1 II 111 James I The crown passed from the Tutors went to James I who was King of Scotland at the time The Tutor family had worked well with Parliament during the time of reformation The would actively seek out this relationship because they recognized this was important for the government James I created bad issues because he was trying to rule like he was in Scotland Issue of royal prerogative This was the idea of James that he had the Divine right to rule but England did not completely agree with this He believed that he was better than everyone and did not need any connection to Parliament In the past Parliament would only come together when the king would call it Parliament practically controlled taxation and James needed the money from taxes Therefore he is forced to call Parliament due to money issues Another important issue was religion Most of England is Anglican and Church of England James was fine with this however he did not like the growing group of people called the Puritans They were people who took the bible very strictly and had strict customs They were extreme Calvinists who were part of the Church of England They wanted to get rid of all of the Catholic aspects of the church such as the imagery By his opposition James I was building a bad image yet again Charles 1 He was James son who made the situation even worse He was forced to call Parliament for taxes Then he goes eleven years without calling Parliament known as the eleven year tyranny which gave no voice for the people He formed nonparliamentary means of taxation For example he had ship money if England were attached which he could collect under emergency or crisis Charles decided to use it whether he was under crisis or not Also Charles hated the Puritans even more than his father His right hand man was named Laud who was at the top of his clergy They basically decided to make life miserable for the Puritans He decided to get rid of them where he could Charles was the King of Scotland at the time as well The Church of Calvin Presbyterian was the major religion However Charles wanted them to be Church of England The Scottish rebelled against their own king and went to war in turn Scotland even invaded northern England In turn he is forced to call Parliament because of the expensive of war with Scotland Long Parliament They knew he needed them for money so their stay in session for thirteen years straight English Revolution Parliament said that they would give the king the money he wanted but they said that they were going to make a few changes They created the Triannial Act which was a guarantee that every three years Parliament would meet whether the king would put it to session or not This automatically limited and checked the king s power The abolished IV the royal prerogative courts which were used by the Stuarts which was used against their political opposers They were special courts used to punish powerful people who went against the king The King decided that they were going to far Therefore he sent military to Parliament and arrested many of the major gures This created a civil war in England over the power of Parliament and the king The Cavaliers were the supporters of the kingroyalists They were hostile to Puritans and proChurch of England The Roundheads were supporters of Parliament They were sympathetic to the Purists The king had better commanders etc so he began to get ahead but Parliament knew how to tax so this gave them the upper hand Oliver Cromwell was a Purist military commander and Parliament defeat the king The question is what do you do with your win Therefore they declare England a republic and behead the king because they do not want his line to continue Since Cromwell was such an important figure and much of Parliament was Puritan Puritan ways are dominated and imposed as well For example theatre and literature were censored Cromwell was supported by his military etc and was essentially a type of ruler of the time He died and England drifted into chaos So Parliament invites back the successor of the king they beheaded Charles II and the Restoration He said he would rule under Parliament s terms There was a period of peace when he came back He was called the merry monarch because he enjoyed a party more than anything However he runs short on cash even though Parliament gave him a specific allowance Therefore since he agreed he wouldn t tax on his own Louis from France decided to help him out Louis asked Charles and his brother heir to become Catholic He wanted him to reCatholicized England People in Parliament freaked the freak out When Charles died England did not want his brother to succeed Charles never openly became Catholic and tried to convert anyone but James did and because of this and the religious hysteria forming Parliament didn t know if they should allow him to become king Glorious Revolution James became king even though he was Catholic because his heirs were two daughters Mary and Ann who were both Protestants He does things very proCatholic an d absolutists in nature l688 James wife number two an Italian princess gives birth to a boy Boys trump girls in the line of succession Parliament and England freak The same year Parliament takes him off of the throne This is known as the bloodless revolution James believed that Louis would help him out but he didn t He thought about fighting back but he just ends up being exiled A bill of right was passed that guaranteed that Parliament would have rights such as passing laws etc that would allow Parliament to rise above the king They invite in James daughter Mary and also her husband William who was Dutch With time this underwhelming of the king would continue on Transatlantic Slave Trade I Africa before the Slave Trade The arrival of Islam in Africa was immensely important This was not spread throughout the entire continent but it it starts spreading from Mahdia and Alexandria and then further south and down the eastern border They converted freely and willingly Arab merchants were commonly the ones who went over and converted the Africans mainly on the borders Impact of Islam Africa was brought into a larger network of trade becoming part of a global Arab trading world They would buy from west Africa good such as salt and gold and also slaves This also made many kingdoms in Africa very wealthy The rate of literacy also rose due to the rise of Islam They would establish schools to be able to read the Qur an This was still predominantly elites of Africa Timbuktu was a city in the middle of west Africa which was legendary due to its intellectual aspect Ibn Battuta was an Islam who would keep a travel journal of Africa He was amazed by the rate of literature in Timbuktu Statebuilding is occurring in Africa Due to the rising rates of literacy there was a pull of educated talent to draw upon Early on the monarchies of Africa would rule in a feudal manner Literacy enabled them to shift from feudal to bureaucratic This was a good change because he feudal form of governing was not always good with passing generation due to a lack of loyalty over time This change allowed for political cohesion more control and an idea of centralized government Three west African kingdoms Sudanese included The kingdom of Ghana oldest 11th century which was based upon its wealth It would eventually be consumed by the kingdom of Mali founded by Sundiata 14th century which was even bigger Sundiata was seen as essential for Mali Mansu Musa was an administrator who expanded and created very modemlike government Musa and Sundiata was seen as extremely wealthy by the Europeans Mansu Musa was traveling to Mecca and it was known that when he went to visit his presence nearly devastated the economy of Cairo because he spent so much and caused in ation Then Songhai consumed Mali Songhai was created militarily like the others Its greatest leader was Askia the Great He is so important of all the leaders because he was known as a great patron of learning and literature He was one reason that Timbuktu gained its intellectual role The kingdom of the Kongo it was not as strong or wealthy as the other west African kingdoms However it was large had a good economy and the monarch had a lot of power The Great Zimbabwe was another area that was believed to have been a very powerful city within an empire It disappeared in the fteenth century before the Europeans came One idea was that there was an environmental disaster which caused its demise The Arabs settled and became part of the local economies and societies This was known as the Zanj It was a collection of citystates which became a permanent outpost The Arabs intermarried with the African populations It became a very mixed society When the Europeans arrived Africa was very suf cient and powerful which buffered Africa from much of their colonization