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Week 11 Chapters 33,34,35,36

by: Hayley Lecker

Week 11 Chapters 33,34,35,36 BIOL 1306/1106

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Biology > BIOL 1306/1106 > Week 11 Chapters 33 34 35 36
Hayley Lecker
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This covers chapters 33-36, lecture notes, and vocabulary.
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 11/07/15
Biology Week 11 Important Information: Professor’s Email: or All vocabulary will be defined at the end of the notes Chapter 33 33.1 Muscle Cells Develop Forces by Means of Cycles of Protein-Protein Interaction Skeletal muscle consists of bundles of muscle fibers. Each skeletal muscle fiber is a large, elongaged cell containing multiple nuclei. A skeletal muscle fiber contains numerous myofibrils, which contain bundles of actin and myosin filaments. The regular overlapping arrangement of the actin and myosin filaments into sarcomeres gives skeletal muscle its striated appearance. Contraction is the development of force by a muscle. The molecular mechanism of contraction is described by the sliding-filament theory and involves the binding of the globular heads of myosin molecules to actin molecules to form cross-bridges. Upon binding to actin, a myosin head changes its conformation, causing the two filaments to move past each other. Release of the myosin heads from actin and their return to their original conformation requires ATP. Nerve cells make contact with skeletal muscle fibers at neuromuscular junctions. In general, each muscle fiber in skeletal muscle is innervated by a single nerve cell. Excitation by nerve impulse (action potential) stimulates a muscle fiber to contract by excitation- contraction coupling. An action potentia2+spreads across the muscle giber’s cell membrane and through the transverse (T) tubules causing Ca (positivity charged calcium) to be released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Ca binds to troponin and changes its conformation, pulling the tropomyosin strands away from the 2+ myosin-binding sites on the actin filaments. The muscle fiber continues to contract until the Ca is returned to sarcoplasmic reticulum. 33.2 Skeletal Muscles Pull on Skeletal Elements to Produce Useful Movements Skeletal systems provide structures against which skeletal muscles can pull to produce useful movements. Endoskeletons are internal systems of rigid supports, consisting of bone and cartilage to which muscle are attached. Tendons connect muscles to bones. Muscle and bones work together around joints to produce movement. Exoskeletons are skeletons that enclose the animal, notably the hardened outer surfaces of arthropods. In arthropods muscles attach to apodemes, internal projections at the joints of the exoskeleton. A hydrostatic skeleton is said to exist if an animal’s body or part of its body becomes stiff and skeleton- like because of high fluid pressure inside. 33.3 Skeletal Muscle Performance Depends on ATP Supply, Cell Type, and Training Muscle contractions depend on a supply of ATP. Muscle cells have three systems for supplying ATP: the immediate system (preexisting ATM and creatine phosphate), the glycolytic system(anaerobic glycolysis), and the oxifative system (Aerobic metabolism). The immediate system can fuel high muscle power output instantaneously but is exhausted within seconds. Glycolysis can regenerate ATP rapidly but is self-limiting. Oxidative metabolism delivers ATP more slowly but can continue to do so for a long time. Slow oxidative muscle cells have cellular properties ( e.g abundant mitochondria) that facilitate extended aerobic work, fast glycolytic muscle cells generate great forces for short periods of time. In vertebrates, slow oxidative cells contain the hemoglobin-like compounds myoglobin, making the cells red. Skeletal muscles contain varying proportions of slow oxidative cells and fast glycolytic cells, depending on genetic controls during muscle development and the demands placed on the muscles. The properties of muscle can be modified by training. (EX: The “stupid muscle” in hockey, it’s a muscle in the wrist that becomes enlarged by hockey players for the purpose of slap shots, and can only be developed through training of that muscle). 33.4 Many Distinctive Types of Muscle Have Evolved Cardiac muscle cells are striated, uninucleate, and electrically connected by gap junctions, so that action potentials spread rapidly throughout masses of cardiac muscle and causes coordinated contractions. In vertebrates some modified cardiac muscle cells serve as the pacemaker cells for rhythmic beating of the heart. Smooth muscle provides contractile force for internal organs such as the gut, blood vessels, and reproductive ducts. Some smooth muscle tissue (e.g. in the digestive tract) consists of sheets of cells that are electrically coupled through gap junctions, helping coordinate the contracts of adjacent cells. Some insects drive flapping of their wings with asynchronous muscles, which unlike most muscles undergo multiple contractions with each excitation. Catch muscles, such as the adductor muscles of clams and scallops can sustain strong contractions for long periods with little ATP. The electric organs of nearly all electric fish evolved from skeletal muscle and consist of modified noncontractile muscle cells. Chapter 34 34.1 Nervous Systems Are Composed of Neurons and Glial Cells. A neuron(nerve cell) is excitable; it is specially adapted to generate and propagate electric signals, typically in the form of action potentials. Neurons make functions relevant control with other cells at synapses. Neurons usually have four anatomical regions: a set of dendrites, a cell body, an axon, and a set of presynaptic axon terminals. Dendrites receive signals from other neurons, a presynaptic axon terminals send signals to other cells. (See Image Left) Unlike neuros, glial cells are usually not excitable. In vertebrates, they include oligodendrocytes, which form insulating myelin sheaths around axons in the brain and spinal cord, and Schwann cells which perform the same function outside of the brain and spinal cord. (See Image Right) 34.2 Neurons Generate Electric Signals by Controlling Ion Distributions Neurons have an electric charge difference across their cell membranes called the membrane potential. The membrane potential is created by ion transporters and channels. The membrane potential is considered to be negative if the inside of the cell membrane is negative in relation to the outside. In inactive neurons, the membrane potential is called the resting potential and is negative. + + The sodium-potassium pump concentrates K on the inside of a neuron and Na on the outside. In a resting neuron, K+ leak channels allow K+ to diffuse through the cell membrane. The resting potential is negative because a negative change on the inside of the cell membrane is needed to balance the tendency of K+ to diffuse outward because of its high internal concentration. The Nernst equation can be used to predict a neuron’s membrane potential. Most ion channels are gates: they open only under certain conditions. Voltage-gated channels open or close in response to local changes in the membrane potential. Stretch-gated channels open or close in response to stretch or tension applied to the cell membrane. Ligand-gated channels have binding sites where they bind noncovalently with specific chemical compounds that control them. When gated ion channels in the cell membrane of a neuron open or close, changed of the membrane potential called depolarization or hyperpolarization can occur. Depolarization occurs when the inside of the cell membrane becomes less negative in relation to the outside. When depolarization occurs, a key question is whether it is great enough for a voltage threshold to be reached. If the threshold is not reached, changed in the membrane potential are graded. An action potential, or nerve impulse is a rapid reversal in membrane potential across a portion of the cell membrane resulting from the opening and closing of voltage-gated Na+ channels and K+ channels. The voltage-gated Na+ channels open when the cell membrane depolarizes to the voltage threshold. An action potential is an all or none event that is conducted along the entire length of a neuron’s axon without any loss of magnitude. It is conducted along the axon because local current flow depolarizes adjacent regions of membrane so they reach voltage threshold. In myelinated axons, action potentials jump between nodes of Ranvier, patches of membrane that are not covered by myelin. 34.3 Neurons Communicate with Other Cells at Synapses A synapse is a cell-to-cell contact point specialized for signal transmission from one cell to another. Most synapses are chemical synapses (with neurotransmitters). Some are electrical synapses. At a chemical synapse, which an action potential reaches the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron, it causes the release of neurotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds rotransmitter, which diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on the cell membrane of the postsynaptic cell. The postsynaptic cell is usually another neuron or a muscle cell. (See image to left) The vertebrate neuromuscular junction is well-studied chemical synapse between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle cells. Its neurotransmitter is acetylcholine (ACh.) Synapses can be fast or slow depending on the nature of their receptors. Ionotropic receptors are ion channels and generate fast, short-lived responses. Metabotropic receptors initiate second-messenger cascades that lead to slower, more sustained responses. There are many different neurotransmitters and types of receptors. The action of neurotransmitter depends on the receptor to which it binds. Synapses between neurons can be either excitatory or inhibitory. A postsynaptic neuron integrates information by summation of graded postsynaptic potentials (which may be excitatory or inhibitory) in both space (spatial summation) and time (temporal summation). Synaptic plasticity is the process by which synapses in the nervous system of an individual animal can undergo long-term changes in their functional properties. Such changes are probably important in learning and memory. 34.4 Sensory Processes Provide Information on an Animal’s External Environment and Internal Status Sensory receptor cells transduce information about an animal’s external and internal environment into action potentials. Sensory receptor cells have sensory receptor proteins that respond to sensory input, causing a graded change of membrane potential called a receptor potential. An ionotropic receptor cell typically has a receptor protein that is a stimulus-gated Na+ channels. A metabotropic receptor cell typically has a receptor protein that activates a G protein when exposed to the stimulus. The action potential sent to the brain are interpreted as particular sensations based on which neurons in the brain receive them. Mechanoreceptors are cells that respond specifically to mechanical distortion of their cell membrane and are typically ionotropic. Stretch receptors are mechanoreceptors. (See Image Left) Chemoreceptors are metabotropic receptor cells that respond to the presence or absence of specific chemicals. The sense of smell depends on chemoreceptors. In the mammalian auditory system, sound pressure waves enter the auditory canal, where the tympanic membrane vibrates in response to them. The movements of the tympanic membrane are relayed to the oval window. Movements of the oval window create sound pressure waves in the fluid-filled cochlea. The basal membrane running down the center of the cochlea is distorted by sound pressure waves at specific locations that depend on the frequency of the waves. These distortions cause the localized bending of stereocilia of hair cells, mechanoreceptors in the organ of Corti. Pitch or tone is encoded by the specific locations along the basilar membrane where action potentials are generated. Photoreceptors are sensory receptor cells that are sensitive to light. The photosensitivity of photoreceptor cells involved in vision depends on the absorption of photons of light by sensory receptor proteins called rhodopsins. Vertebrates have two types of visual photoreceptor cells, rods and cones. Color vision in humans arises from three types of cones cells with different spectral absorption properties. When excited by light, vertebrate visual photoreceptor cells hyperpolarize. They do not produce action potentials. The vertebrate retina consists of four types of integrating neurons and the photoreceptor cells lining the back of eye. Extensive processing of visual information occurs in the retina and also in the brain. Arthropods have compound eyes consisting of many optical units called ommatidia, each with its own lens. 34.5 Neurons Are Organized into Nervous Systems Nerve nets are the simplest nervous systems. As nervous systems evolved further, they followed two major trends: centralization- the clustering neurons into centralized integrating organs and cephalization- the concentration of major integrating centers at the anterior end of the animal’s body. The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). Neurons that extend or reside outside of the brain and spinal cord make up the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Neurons are classed as interneurons, sensory neurons, or motor neurons. In vertebrates, the central nervous system is positioned in the dorsal part of the body. In arthropods, such as insects and crayfish, the CNS is the primarily positioned in the ventral part of the body. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is the part of the nervous system (both CNS, PNS) that controls involuntary functions. Its enteric, sympathetic, and parasympathetic division differ in anatomy, neurotransmitters, and the effects of target tissues. The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions usually exert opposite effects on an organ. The vertebrate brain consists of a forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain. During the course of vertebrate evolution, some parts of the brain (e.g. the medulla oblongata) have remained relatively unchanged, whereas other parts (ex the cerebral hemispheres) have changed dramatically. The cerebral hemisphere, specific regions are specialized to carry out specific sensory and motor functions for example language functions and fear. Some brain region have maps: the parts of the brain that serve various anatomical regions of the body are physically related to each other in ways that mirror physically relationships of the rest of the body. Examples are the somatosensory (body sensing) and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. Chapter 35 35.1 The Endocrine and Nervous Systems Play Distinct, Interacting Roles Nerve and endocrine cells control and coordinate the functions of the body by releasing chemical signals that travel to another cell, called the target cell. Neuronal signals are fast and addressed, whereas endocrine signals are slow and broadcast. The nervous system controls predominantly the fine, rapid movements of discrete skeletal muscles. The endocrine system typically controls more widespread, prolonged activities such as developmental or metabolic changes. Animals use chemical signaling over a very broad range of spatial scales. Autocrines and paracrines act on, respectively, the cells producing the signals and on their immediate neighbors. Neurotransmitters and hormones work at intermediate distances. Pheromones are released into the environment and can affect targets hundreds of meters away. 35.2 Hormones Are Chemical Messengers Distributed by the Blood Animals have two types of secretory glands: exocrine glands, which have ducts to carry away their secretions, and endocrine glands which do not have ducts. Endocrine cells secret chemical signals into the blood. A hormone is a chemical substance that is secreted into the blood by endocrine cells and that regulates the function of other cells that it reaches by blood circulation. Some endocrine cells are neurosecretory cells; they propagate action potentials and secrete hormones into the blood from their axon terminals. Other endocrine cells are nonneural endocrine cells: they are non-excitable cells that are typically stimulated to secrete their hormones by other hormones. Most hormones are peptide hormones (polypeptides or proteins), steroid hormones, or amine hormones. Peptide hormones and some amine hormones are water-soluble; steroids and some amine hormones are lipid-soluble. Receptors for water-soluble hormones are located on the cell surface of a target cell. Receptors for most lipid-soluble hormones are inside the cell. Hormones causes different responses in different target cells, depending on each target cell’s type of receptor and the processes activated inside the cell by binding of hormone to that receptor. Each hormone has a characteristic half-life, the time required for half of a group of simultaneously secreted hormone molecules to be removed from the blood. Typical half-lives range from minutes to as long as week. 35.3 The Vertebrate Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland Link the Nervous and Endocrine Systems The pituitary gland has two parts- the anterior pituitary and posterior pituitary- which have different developmental origins and function in different ways. Both parts of the pituitary have close functional links with the brain. The posterior pituitary is a neurohemal organ where hormones produced by hypothalamic neurosecretory cells are released into the blood. In mammals it secretes two peptide hormones: antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. (See Image Left) The anterior pituitary is an nonneural endocrine gland that secretes four tropic hormones as well as growth hormones (GH), prolactin, and a few other hormones. It is controlled by releasing hormones (RHs) and inhibiting hormones (His; also called release-inhibiting hormones) produced by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus. Endocrine cells often act on each other in sequence, a system known as an axis. For example, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA) axis controls the adrenal secretion of glucocorticoids. Hormone release often is controlled by negative-feedback loops. Releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones are often released from the hypothalamus in pulses. Pulses release is hypothesized to prevent loos of sensitivity in the target cells in the pituitary. 35.4 Hormones Regulate Mammalian Physiological Systems The thyroid gland is controlled by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and secretes the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which control cellular metabolism. Iodine deficiency impairs thyroid hormone production and can lead to impaired mental development in children and to goiter in adults. Sex steroids (androgens in males, estrogens and progesterone in females) are produced by the gonads under control of tropic hormones called gonadotropins, secrets by the anterior pituitary gland. Sex steroids control parental sexual development, puberty, and adult reproductive functions. 35.5 The Insect Endocrine System is Crucial for Development Two hormones, prothoracicotropic hormones (PTTH) and ecdysone control molting in sects. A third hormone, juvenile hormone (JH) prevents maturation. When an insect stops producing juvenile hormone, it molts into an adult. Chapter 36 36.1 Kidneys Regulate the Composition of the Body Fluids The body fluids of an animals have three characteristics: osmotic pressure, ionic composition, and volume. Kidneys are organs composed of tubular structures that produce urine- an aqueous solution derived from the blood plasma- for excretion. The primary function of the kidneys is to regulate the composition and volume of the blood plasma by means of controlled removal of solutes and water from the plasma. Kidney function can be expressed in terms of the composition of the urine as a ratio of the composition of the blood plasma. Such ration is called a urine/plasma ration. If the urine is less concentrated in total solutes than the plasma, the kidneys are making the plasma become more concentrated. If the urine is more concentrated than the plasma, the kidneys are making the plasma become more dilute. Animals vary in the U/P ratios that can be achieved by their kidneys and thus in how concentrated their urine can be. Mammals, birds, and insects are the only animals that can produce concentrated urine with an osmotic U/P ratio exceeding 1.0. Some groups of animals have tissues or organs other than the kidneys that excrete ions at high total concentrations – a process called extrarenal salt excretion. 36.2 Nitrogenous Wastes Need to Be Excreted Metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids produces toxic nitrogenous wastes, which must be eliminated from the body. (See Image Left) Ammonotelic animals produce ammonia as their primary nitrogenous waste. They are typically water-breathing aquatic animals that eliminate ammonia by diffusion across their gills or other permeable body surfaces. Ureotelic animals detoxify ammonia by converting it mostly to urea before excretion. These animals include mammals and most anphibians. Uricotelic animals convert ammonia mostly to uric acid or other compounds closely related to uric acid. They include insects, spiders, and birds and some other reptiles. Uric acid and the compounds related to it can be excreted in precipitated form, resulting in little loss of water. 36.3 Aquatic Animals Display a Wide Diversity of Relationships of Their Environment Osmolarity is a measure of the overall solute concentration (osmotic pressure) of a fluid. An animal may have body fluids that have the same osmotic pressure as the animal’s environment (isosmotic) or that have a higher (hyperosomotic) or lower (hyposmotic) osmotic pressure than the anima’s environment. Ocean bony fish are hyposmotic to their envrioment, they tend to lose water by osmosis and gain ions by diffusion. Freshwater fish are hyperosmotic to their environment, they tend to gain water by osmosis and lose ions by diffusion. To regulate the composition of their body fluids, both ocean and freshwater fish employ their kidneys, ion pumping mechanisms in their gills, and drinking behavior. (See Image Left) Migratory bony fish such as salmon switch between being hyperosmotic regulated in fresh water and hyposmotic regulated in seawater. Some marine invertebrates face varying environmental osmolarities. These animals can be osmotic conformers or osmotic regulators. Most marine invertebrates are osmotic conformers and do not survive well in dilute waters. 36.4 Dehydration is the Principal Challenge for Terrestrial Animals Terrestrial animals can readily become dehydrated because of evaporative loss of water from their body fluids. Humidic terrestrial animals have outer body coverings (i.e skin, exoskeleton, or the like) that are highly permeable to water. Such as animals lose water so rapidly by dehydration that they can tolerate only limited exposure to dehydrating conditions. Xeric terrestrial animals have outer body covering that highly limit evaporation of their body fluids. These animals can therefore spend indefinite periods in the open air. The low water permeability of their body coverings results from the presence of lipids. Metabolic water is the water produced by the oxidation of food materials during metabolism. It sometimes erves as major source of water for desert animals that have very low total water needs because their conserve water exceptionally well. 36.5 Kidneys Adjust Water Excretion to Help Animals Maintain Homeostasis Vertebrate kidneys consist of many tubules called nephrons. The fluid first introduced into a nephron is the primary urine. This fluid is modified as it flows through the nephron by processes of reabsorption and secretion. The fluid that is excreted into the outside environment is the definitive urine. Urine formation in a vertebrate nephron beings at the closed end of the nephron, which consists of a Bowman’s capsule that surrounds a glomerulus. The primary urine is formed by ultrafiltration, during which fluid moves out of the blood plasma in the glomerulus and into the lumen of the Bowman’s capsule driven by the force of blood pressure. The primary urine is similar in composition to the blood plasma in most ways except for lacking blood cells and proteins. (See Image Left) The rate at which primary urine is introduced into all the Bowman’s capsules collectively is the glomerular filtration rate (GER). The proximal convoluted tubule of a nephron reabsorbs water, Na+, Cl-, and certain other solutes, reducing the volume of other tubular fluid without changing its osmolarity. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) controls the functions of the late kidney tubules: the distal convoluted tubules in amphibians and the collecting ducts in mammals. When the ADH concentration is high, aquaporin molecules are inserted in the ell membranes of the epithelial cells of the late tubules, making the cells water permeable. When the concentration of ADH is high, an amphibian makes urine that is isosmotic with the blood plasma because the tissue fluids surrounding the distal convoluted tubules are isosmotic with plasma. A mammal, however, makes urine that has an osmotic pressure higher than the plasma because the tissue fluids surrounding the collecting ducts are hyperosmotic to the plasma. In a mammal, the loops of Henle create a concentration gradient in the tissue fluids of the renal medulla by countercurrent multiplication. This is the mechanism by which the tissue fluids surrounding the collecting ducts are made hyperosmotic to the plasma. The excretory system of an insect is composed of the Malpighian tubules(which join the gut at the junction of midgut and hindgut) and the hindgut. Primary urine is formed by a secretory mechanism, often driven by active transport of KCl into the Malpighian tubules. Lecture Notes Circulation and Gas Exchange is the fundamental purpose is to get nutrients and oxygen to cells for cellular respiration and remove CO2 and chemical wastes. All cells need oxygen for cellular respiration. Circulation is fluid, vessels, pump. Respiratory pigments such as hemocyanin and hemoglobin increase O2 storage in circulatory fluids. Gas exchange in insects: Respiratory and cardiovascular systems: Respiratory system: the lungs and the trachea that bring air into the body. Cardiovascular/Circulatory system circulates blood around the body via the heart, arteries and veins, delivering oxygen and nutrients to organs and cells and carrying their waste products away. Human Pulmonary System: Circulation in vertebrates: Arteries and Veins: Contractions of skeletal muscles squeeze the vein, the squeezing moves the blood in the veins toward the heart because of one-way values that prevent backflow. Osmoregulation and excretion: The urinary system is the system where the kidneys filter blood. Relative concentrations of water and solutes must be kept within relatively narrow limits. Ions such as sodium and calcium must be maintained at concentrations that permit normal activity of muscles, neurons and other cells. Wastes such as ammonia must be excreted. Nitrogenous wastes: Endocrine system and hormones- provides chemical communications within the body using hormones, there are three classes of hormones: peptide, steroid, and amine. Hemolymph – circulatory fluid analogous to blood found in insects’ open circulatory systems. Pulmonary circuit- circulatory pathway in which blood is oxygenated (e.g through the lungs). Systemic circuit- circulatory pathway in which oxygen is supplied to the rest of the body. Nitrogenous wastes – nitrogen-containing wastes produced by protein metabolism that must be excreted by animals due to their toxicity. Includes ammonia, urea, and uric acid. Nephron – The basic structural and functional unit of the kidney that functions to regulate the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed and excreting the rest of as urine. Pheromone- secreted or excreted chemical compound that triggers a social response in members of the same species.


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