New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Intro Zoology week 9 notes

by: Hannah Kirby

Intro Zoology week 9 notes BIOL 1114, 001

Marketplace > University of Oklahoma > Biology > BIOL 1114, 001 > Intro Zoology week 9 notes
Hannah Kirby
GPA 3.1

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

notes from week 9 of classes
Intro to zoology
Class Notes
Intro Zoology
25 ?




Popular in Intro to zoology

Popular in Biology

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Kirby on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1114, 001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr.Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.


Reviews for Intro Zoology week 9 notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/27/16
Zoology notes week 9 Ch. 3, 8 Apoptosis­ programmed cell death DNA replication before mitosis­ cells double up before dividing (otherwise daughter cells would  be smaller and smaller) Mitosis  cell cycle control = traffic signs  Cancer cells ignore traffic signs  Metastasis = cancer cells go motile (cell adhesion) Two types of cell division in sexual life cycle  Mitosis­ cell division; identical DNA  Meiosis­ production of gametes; ½ DNA o Male and female gametes come together to form the zygote Mitosis has many roles  Growth  Repair  Regenerate  Reproduce (Asexual) Mitosis and apoptosis work together­ Motitic division adds new cells, apoptosis removes cells What if cells don’t die? Cancerous growth (Injured cell doesn’t die, but continues to grow out of  control) Dna replication before cell division  Each daughter cell= identical DNA  Genome= all of the cells genetic material (over 3 billion base pairs)  DNA replication = DNA to DNA (in transcription, only one strand is used as a template;  during replication, both strands serve as templates simultaneously)  DNA replication can occur at multiple origins, eventually combining to form the two  daughter strands Enzymes participating in DNA replication  Helicase­ unwinds the double helix; creates replication fork  Binding proteins­ stabilize each strand, hold the strands apart  Primase­ adds short RNA primer sequence to the DNA template (temporary) and DNA  polymerase will bind to the primed (RNA segment) region  DNA polymerase­ recognizes primers; binds nucleotides to form new strands of DNA  (complementary) top and bottom strands move in opposite directions; leading strand  follows the helicase and is continuous; lagging strand will eventually end and form  Okazaki fragments  Ligase­ RNA primers are replaced with DNA, and ligases fill in the gaps; joins Okazaki  fragments and seals other gaps in sugar­phosphate backbone Binary fission­ an asexual process that replicates DNA and distributes it to two daughter cells Eukaryotic cells have to duplicate the nucleus before the cell can divide DNA condenses into chromosomes  Histomes begin winding DNA strand to form nucleosomes  DNA continues to wrap and forms chromatin  Chromatin compacts more and forms chromosome (distinct structure)  Sister chromatids­ identical chromosomes after DNA replication  Centromere­ structural region of chromosome­ attaching point and forms the “X” o not to be confused with centrioles or centrosomes  DNANucleosome chromatin chromosome Cell cycle during division Figure 8.10 Interphase: growth, double up genetic material, double up on cytoplasmic components G1 phase: newly divided cell grows, protein synthesis occurs, normal cell function G0 phase: normal function, not dividing, no replication, most cells are currently in G0 S phase: DNA replication G2 phase: produces proteins required for mitosis (spindle proteins, membrane proteins) After G2 phase Mitosis: division of nucleus (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase,  anaphase, telophase) Cytokinesis: division of the cell Chromosomes divide during mitosis fig 8.21 DNA replication occurs during S phase; interphase DNA condenses during prophase Chromosomes line up at the cell equator during metaphase Centromere splits during anaphase Steps of mitosis:  Prophase­ chromosomes condensing  Prometaphase­ nuclear envelope is gone, centrosomes are on opposite sides of the cell  Metaphase­ centrosomes align at equator, spindle fibers attach  Anaphase­ centrosomes split equally by spindle fibers, sister chromatids separate and  move to opposite poles of cell, poles move further apart  Telophase­ spindle fibers detach, nuclear envelope reforms, chromatids decondense Cytokinesis­ cell splits into two daughter cells; cytoplasm splits Contractile ring forms cleavage furrow Cytoskeleton­ network of protein tracks and tubules o Microfilaments­ actin molecules (compose contractile rings, cilia, flagella) o Intermediate filaments­ protein subunits o Microtubules­ tubulin subunits (compose mitotic spindle fibers)  Structural support  Aids in cell division  Organelle transport  Cell movement Checkpoints:  G1 checkpoint: Is DNA damaged?  S checkpoint: Is DNA replicating correctly?  G2 checkpoint: Has all DNA replicated? Can damaged DNA be repaired? Is spindle  making machinery in place?  Metaphase checkpoint: is spindle built? Do chromosomes attach to spindle? Are  chromosomes aligned down equator? If any of these do not pass= APOPTOSIS Cells Adhesion proteins hold cells together­ tight junctions, anchoring junctions, gap junctions  all hold cells together A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue Tumors arise from: 1. Overactive proto­oncogenes 2. Underactive tumor suppressor genes (p53) Apoptosis has 2 functions: 1. Eliminates excess cells; carving out structures 2. Weeds out aging or defective cells Cancer cells: 1. Ignore mitotic checkpoints 2. Overactive oncogenes 3. Underactive tumor suppressor genes 4. Ignore apoptotic signals  5. Ignore contact inhibition 6. High telomerase activity 7. Lose adherence to others 8. Ignore other cell signals 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.