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history Since 1877 Test 3 Notes

by: Shelby Harris

history Since 1877 Test 3 Notes HIST 10613

Marketplace > Texas Christian University > History > HIST 10613 > history Since 1877 Test 3 Notes
Shelby Harris

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These notes cover the first two weeks of notes for the 3rd exam.
US Hist: Surv Since 1877
Dr. Mary Wilson
Class Notes
history, since, us, 1877, notes, test, two, 3, exam, great, depression
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shelby Harris on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 10613 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Mary Wilson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see US Hist: Surv Since 1877 in History at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 03/27/16
Survey of US History Notes Exam 3 03/20/2016 ▯ Lever Act 1917  Gave President control over production, prices, and distribution of food and fuel ▯ Overman Act 1918  Reinforced the president’s emerging war power ▯ Herbert Hoover  Food Administration o Cut back on American food consumption o Increased food shipment overseas to troops ▯ William McAdoo  Railroad Administration o Took all competing railroads and synchronized them ▯ Standard Time Act 1918  To regulate train arrival  Time zones  Daylight savings ▯ Bernard Baruch  War Industries Board o Decided what factories did o Had power to take over factories o Could cut off raw materials to factories if they didn’t cooperate ▯ War Labor Board  Tried to ensure peace between companies and Unions  Established 8 hour work days and better wages ▯ Committee on Public Information  George Creel  Canned speeches  Trying to bring everyone together Liberty Leagues  Spy on neighbors o Report suspicious activity  Propaganda ▯ Executive Order 1917  Federal employees could not criticize war effort ▯ Espionage Act of 1917  Automatic 20 year sentence for aiding and abetting the enemy or refusing to enlist ▯ Sedition Act 1918  No criticism of the government, flag, military, or constitution  15,000 arrested ▯ Eugene Debs ▯ Alexander Kerensky  Russian people were suffering  He led revolt and took over czar  Vladimir Lenin took power from Kerensky ▯ 14 Points  Woodrow Wilson’s plan in 1918  Germany thought they could have an honorable surrender with this treaty o They were alone in the war and decided to surrender  Negotiated at Palace of Versailles in hall of mirrors o 1. Open diplomacy  no more secret alliances o 2. Freedom of the seas  rights of neutrals to travel on seas  Britain didn’t like this one o 3. Free trade  trading partners generally don’t fight o 4. Arms reductions  If people aren’t prepared for war, they won’t be so anxious to fight o 6-13 other points o 14. League of Nations  wanted to forget the past  Europe was not ready to let past go  Wilhelm abdicates; flees to Holland o Queen Wilhelmina protected him ▯ Treaty of Versailles 1919 1. Heavy Reparations 2. Germany gave up all colonies 3. Germany army and navy reduced to police forces 4. War guild clauses i. Germany was humiliated  Alsace Lorrants o Contested territory o Given to France  Saar o Industrial heart of Germany o Given to France ▯ 11/11/1911- Armistice Day (Veteran’s Day)  65 million went to war  8 million men died  European nations owed about $13 billion to USA ▯ John Maynard Keynes  Predicted another war from the treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles 1919 ▯ Woodrow Wilson  Made supporters angry when dealing with treaty o He only brought democrats with him to Europe o Senate angered  Republicans regained control of Senate and House ▯ 1919 presented Treaty to Senate  UN clause- US had to go to aid of anyone in League o US didn’t know who would be in the league o Didn’t want to give up their freedom of deciding when to go war o Senate rewrote treaty ▯ Irreconcilables  Led by senator William E. Borah  Opposition to League of Nations equal protection clause  Henry Cabot Lodge supported them  Group of senators campaigned against ratification of the treaty ▯ Wilson had stroke  Edith Wilson basically became president for his last two years ▯ Election of 1920  Americans were unhappy with USA’s role in WWI  Recession as economy recovered from sudden change from wartime to peacetime  Spanish epidemic killed more than the war did  1 election women could vote  James M. Cox (D) v. Warren G. Harding (R) o Both relatively unknown  Harding invented word “normalcy” o Pro business o Won by a lot o Solid democrat south ▯ Roaring 20s  Automobile became more widespread  Birth rates went up  People tired of reform and wanted to live  WWI was an eye opener o Thousands died for what?!  “decade where democracy died”  few people in rural areas and census didn’t reapportion house of representatives ▯ Urban vs. Rural  Split became obvious  Values of people are very different  City people saw country people as uncultured  Active disdain for rural values  Sinclair Lewis- “Main Street” o Cynical book about small town people  Thomas Wolfe o “Look Homeward Angel” o Book based on hometown- Asheville, NC o Didn’t disguise characters well enough o Active disdain for rural values  H.L. Mencken o Founded a magazine catering to city folk o Hated William Jennings Bryan (populist)  “The New Yorker” o debut in 1925 ▯ 1920s cont’d  immigration increased  65% of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe o Catholic or Jewish o Not well educated o Came from rural areas  Every American wanted restrictions  Rural Americans were afraid American values were at stake ▯ National Origins Act of 1924  Set quotas for ethnic groups  Went to 1890 census and based quotas country’s immigrants  Limitations stayed in effect until 1960s ▯ A. Mitchell Palmer  Attorney general of US  1919 – his house was bombed by unkown o thought to be anarchists  people thought that anarchists and communists were going to take over rdconcern that radicals were mixed in with immigrants ▯ 3 International  call for international soviet republic ▯ KKK  Had been destroyed after Civil War  By 1920s- rose up because of black success and immigrants  William Joseph Simmons o Revived KK 1920s o Claimed to be real Americans o White robes and peaked hats used  Over 5 million members  Spread across US  Biggest clans in IN and IL  Aimed at everone o Anti- catholic, Jewish, black, immigrants o Anyone not protestant whites  Woodrow Wilson took a hit  Emphasized whit woman’s protection  DC Stephenson o Kidnapped and raped his secretary o Led to fall of KKK ▯ Biggest causes of divide between rural and urban life  Prohibition  Evolution Prohibition  To maintain status quo o Immigrants used alcohol differently than Americans  Will Rogers o Humorous observer of American culture; comedian o “Mississippi would vote dry as long as they can stagger to the polls”  Rural Americans wanted dry  Urban americans wanted wet  18 Amendment in 1918 (repealed 1933 by FDR)  Doctor Prescription for alcohol ▯ Al Capone  Mob figure  Ran illegal booze business  Made about $60 million a year  Sent to Alcatraz ▯ Evolution  Charles Darwin  A lot of people accepted his theories  Many rejected it (religious people)  Southerners especially o Passed laws to keep evolution from being taught in schools (creationism was taught)  John T. Scope o Bio teacher in TN o Taught evolution in his class o The “monkey trial” o Defense lawyer- Clarence Darrow o Prosecutor- William Jennings Bryan o Trial attracted world wide attention o Found guilty- didn’t make it supreme Court o Emphasized the gap between those who wanted change and those who didn’t ▯ Margaret Sanger  Founder of Planned Parenthood  Advocated birth control  Thought poor should be sterilized to control poverty ▯ Black Migration  Left the south looking to better their lives  Flocked to northern cities  “Harlem Renaissance” o the great Jazz Age  Bob Colest J. Rosmond Johnson  1 black producers o Ella Fitzgerald and Billy Holiday  NAACP took off in 20s o WEB Dubois Warren G. Harding (R)  1 President in 1920s  big business came back o very powerful in government  corrupt administration o very easily swayed o let friends benefit from government contracts  refused to answer questions o spoke only from scripts  had mistresses o Nan Britton ▯ Teapot Dome Scandal  Federally owned land in Wyoming  Oil discovered in Wyoming o Government set it aside as oil reserve  Edwin Denby- Sec. of navy o In charge of oil reserves  Albert Fall- secretary of interior o Took over oil reserves o Sold under the table o Forced to resign o Sent to jail- first time for a cabinet member to be sent to jail ▯ Budget and accounting act 1921  US had structure to keep track of budget; money coming in and out  Only good thing from Harding  Created Bureau of budget  Ensure tax money was appropriated appropriately  Described how to create federal budget annually  H of Reps controls money ▯ Harding died from heart attack 1923 ▯ Calvin Coolidge (Vp) took over  From Vermont  Modest, quiet “silent cal”  Won re-election in 1924  Honest  Didn’t run again in 1928  Best president of 1920s  Son died from infection ▯ Dorothy Parker  Wit, poet  “boys don’t make passes at girls who wear glasses” ▯ Election of 1928  Al Smith (D) o Roman immigrant parents; Catholic o Wet (against prohibition) o Everything rural Americans hated  Herbert Hoover (R) o Iowa o Engineer, humanitarian o Protestant o In favor of prohibition  Loved by rural americans o Broke solid south o Took blame for depression  Had been 10 years in the making in reality Agricultural depression  1919  expansion of automobile industry o fort model T o 7% of workers worked for industry o satellite industries  people that make parts o Created jobs  Demand for new roads  Hotels  Restaurants  Gas stations  Jobs= purchasing power  Housing industry o People wanted to buy their own homes o Construction- satellite jobes ▯ New stuff!  Washing machine  Electric stove  Electric stove  Electric refridgerators  Hot water heater  Vacuum cleaner  Movies “talkies”  Radios in homes  Mass advertising drove this o Everyone had to have the “latest”  Installment buying o Could buy on credit o By end of decade $7 owed by consumers ▯ Efficiency of Production  Assembly line o Increased with electricity o Productivity up 32%  Mass consumption society o Based on purchasing power ▯ Causes of Depression  Poor distribution of Income o Trickle down theory didn’t work properly o Too much money staying at upper levels of business o Money put into stock market rather than re-investing in industry o Hoover and Mellon blamed o Taxes doubled on wealthy o Purchasing power didn’t keep up with production  Disguised by installment buying o Supreme court struck down min wage and max work hour o Causes decline in auto and hosing industry o 1920s- merger mania  thousands put out of work  due to weakness in corporate structure o defects in banking system  no separation between commercial bank and investment bank  bankers took millions from depositors and invested in stock markets  1926 >1,000 banks failed  Agricultural depression o Prices went down- decrease in demand o Farmers increased production  Drove prices further down o Imbalance of Foreign trade  Trade barriers wne tup  US passed high tarrifs in attempt to protect our industries  Other countries made their own tariffs in retaliation  No one was making any money ▯ The Crash “Black Tuesday”  Rise of value of stock market based on speculation- not ▯ Pooling  Waiting for others to buy  Selling stock with huge profit  Illegal now ▯ Over 4,000 banks failed  Over 100,000 businesses were broke  Unemployment went from 3 million to 15 million  National income went from 81 billion to 49 billion ▯ Herbert Hoover’s Efforts  “hooverflags” – empty pockets  “hoovervilles” – shanty towns  advisors initially told him the problem would fix itself  hoover believed government should try to help o asked unions to stop with purchasing power o Agriculture Marketing Act 1929  Government bought surplus grain o Emergencey Relief and Reconstruction Act  Public services created jobs  Hoover Dam  Stimulated jobs o Reconstruction Finance Corporation  To help save banks  He spent billions of government money but couldn’t help the economy ▯ Bonus Army  WWI vets had been promised a bonus in 1945  20,000 vets congregated in DC and demanded their bonus NOW  Walter W. Waters- leader o Appeal to Congress for their bonuses  Army came to disperse the vets o Douglas MacArthur Directed Removal  Thought vets were going to overthrow gov’t o w/ palton and Eisenhower o vets injured, a few were killed o media spread images all over USA ▯ ▯ ▯


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