Intro to Archaeology- Week 7 Notes
Intro to Archaeology- Week 7 Notes ANT 112
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emilyecclestone on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 112 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Verity Whalen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
WEEK 7- UNDERSTANDING ANCIENT TECHNOLOGIES Ethnoarchaeology, Ethnographic Analogy & Experimental Archaeology The Process of Archaeological Inquiry • Low level theory= facts and data about objects o "This object is made of obsidian and is 5in. Long" o Basic observations • High level theory= big questions o "why did culture develop?" Principle of Analogy • Two things share similarities and thus share other similarities Ethnographic Analogy • Study of ethnographic records to develop analogies linking behavior with material remains Types of Analogy • Formal Analogy o Analogies justified by similarities in the formal attributes of archaeological and ethnographic objects and features • Rely on similarities in form between the archaeological and ethnographic cases, regardless of whether the analogies come from the same culture o They are strengthen if.. • Many ethnologic cases demonstrate the same pattern • The archaeological and ethnographical cases have many attributes in common • Relational Analogy o Analogies justified on the basis of close cultural continuity between the archaeological and ethnographical cases or similarity in general cultural form • Entail formal similarities, but archaeological and ethnographical cases must be related in some fashion • They both come from societies with similar settlements systems, economies, or environments Analogy: The Pitfalls 1. Assumption that past was same as present 2. Different analogies produce different interpretations 3. Ethnographic record today is only tiny fragment of what came before Productively Using Analogy • The "expiration" date o Temporal, spatial, cultural continuity • Middle level theory o Tries to strengthen an analogy by explaining why a necessary relationship exists between an object's or feature's attributes and an inference made from those attributes o Attempts to explain why an inference must be true o Particularly rigorous analogy o The bridging arguments Ethnoarchaeology • Study of the linkages between the behaviors and material remains of contemporary people to identify analogies for the archaeological record Experimental Archaeology • The use of carefully controlled modern experiments to provide data to aid in interpretation of the archaeological record Film: Kon-Tiki • Thor Heyerdahl & experimental archaeology o What was Heyerdahl's hypothesis? o Name 2 ways he conducted his experiment using materials/technologies of ancient South America Clovis & the Peopling of the Americas Folsom Site • New Mexico- 1927 • Projectile point between buffalo ribs--> folsom point • Extinct Pleistocene species • Significance--> product of human activity (was it a human made product), that buffalo species is extinct Blackwater Draw Site • Near Clovis, New Mexico 1933 • Large projectile point--> Clovis point • Extinct Pleistocene mammoths • Very large/mega fauna • Hypothesized as a butcher site • Gave an understanding of the time period The Clovis First Hypothesis 1. Producers of Clovis Point = 1st settlers of America a. Found clovis points in several sites around the Southwest near mega fauna (mammoths) b. [First thoughts were that clovis people hunted mammoths] 2. Mammoth hunters 3. Sudden appearance of Clovis= migration 4. Migrated- 11,500 years BP via Bering Land Bridge a. Lover ocean levels (Beringia) Issues wit Clovis First Hypothesis • Mega fauna overkill? o Hunting them is risky--> they are huge animals o Diffucult to hunt them on foot with a spear o People were not at the top of the food chain • Alternate roots? o Other ways into the Americas
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