PSY 335 Week 11 Notes
PSY 335 Week 11 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Harris on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
PSY 335 Week 11 Lecture Notes November 3 & 5 th Role of Theory • Theories of social development attempt to account for important aspects of development • Such theories must: - Explain how kid’s development is influenced by the people around them - Examine the ways that humans affect each other Two Psychoanalytic Theories • Freud of Psychosexual development • Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development View Of Children’s Development • Freud believes behavior is motivate by the need to satisfy (primarily unconscious) basic drives • Erikson believes development is driven by a series of developmental crises. In order to achieve healthy development, the individual must successfully resolve these crises Themes in Psychoanalytic Theories • Discontinuity: These theories stress discontinuous development • Individual Differences: Children’s early experiences have a major impact on their subsequent development • Nature/Nurture: Both Freud & Erikson focus on the biological underpinnings of developmental stages and how they interact with the child’s experience Freud’s Theory • Freud assumed that even very young children have a social nature that motivates their behavior and influences their relationships with other people • Believed that psychic energy becomes focused in different erogenous zones during each stage - Psychic energy: biologically based, instinctual drives that fuel thoughts & feelings - Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are erotically sensitive Freud’s Personality Development • Id, Ego, and Superego Stages of Psychosexual Development • Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital First Personality Structure • Id: Earliest and most primitive of the 3 personality structures posited by Freud - Totally unconscious source of psychic energy & instinctual drives - Ruled by the Pleasure Principle – the goral of achieving maximal gratification (eating, drinking, physical comfort) as quickly as possible First Stage: Oral • Occurs during the first year, the primary source of satisfaction & pleasure is oral activity - Primary sources of pleasure is sucking and eating • Mother established as “first & strongest love object” and as a source of security • With security comes fear of loss of love or loss of a person Second Personality Structure • Ego: Rational, logical, problem-solving component to personality - Arises based upon our need to resolve conflict between the id’s demands & the restraints imposed by the external world (though never fully in control) - Operates based upon reality principle – trying to find ways to satisfy the id that accord with the demands of the world Second Stage: Anal • Lasts roughly from 3-5 years of age, the primary source pleasure comes from defection • Focus on the pleasurable relief of the tension derived from defecation • Conflict occurs when (for the 1 time) parents begin to make specific demands on the infant (potty training) in which children are required to control their impulses to delay gratification Third Stage: Phallic • Spans ages 3-6; sexual pleasure is focused on the genitalia - Children become focused on their own genitalia & curious about those of parents & playmates • During this time, children identify with their same-sex parent, giving rise to gender, differences in attitudes & behavior - Penis envy: When girls notice and resent the fact that they don’t have a penis Third Personality Structure • Superego: Consists of internalized moral standards, similar to what we think of as a conscience • Children are enabled to control their behavior based on beliefs about right and wrong, they try to avoid guilt Development of Superego • For boys, the Oedipus Complex: Conflict experienced by boys on the phallic period because of sexual desire for their mother and fear of retaliation by their father - Ego protects him through repression • Infantile amnesia – forgot this even happened • Boy also identified with the father, developing a strong conscience • Girls have a less intense Electra Complex, which results in them developing a weaker conscience Fourth Stage: Latency • Lasts from age 6-12; sexual energy gets channeled into socially acceptable activities • Fairly calm time • Sexual desires are safely hidden in the unconscious Fifth Stage: Genital Stage • Begins in adolescence, sexual maturation is complete & sex becomes a major goal • Sexual energy reasserts itself with full force; though now towards peers • Hopefully by this time, the individual has developed a strong ego & superego that’s neither too weak nor too string Healthy & Unhealthy Development • Healthy development: ability to invest oneself in & gain pleasure fro love and work • Unhealthy development results if fundamental needs are not met during one of the stages • According to Freud, these unsatisfied needs are unconscious and expressed in indirect or symbolic ways Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Eight age related (5 stages during childhood and adolescence) - Each stage is characterized by a specific crisis that the individual must resolve - If the dominant issue of a stage is not successfully resolved before the next stage begins, the person will continue to struggle with it Stage 1: Trust v. Mistrust st • Occurs during the 1 year • Infant must learn to develop a sense of trust – developed through parenting and care giving • Erikson believes that if the infant does not develop the ability to trust others, the person will have difficulty forming intimate relationship slater on in life Stage 2: Autonomy v. Shame & Doubt • Ages 1 – 3.5 years old • Designed to achieve a strong sense of autonomy while adjusting to increasing social demands • If parents allow children to achieve self-control without loss of self-esteem, the child will gain a sense of autonomy • If children are subjected to serve punishment or ridicule, they may come to doubt their abilities or to feel a general sense of shame Stage 3: Initiative v. Guilt • Ages 4-6 • Period during which children identify with and learn from their parents • If parents are not highly controlling or punitive, children can develop high standards and the initiative to meet them without being crushed by worry about not being able to measure up Stage 4: Industry v. Inferiority • Ages 6 – puberty • Crucial for ego development • Children master cognitive & social skills that are important in their culture and they learn to work industriously and to cooperate with peers • Successful experiences = child sense of competence • Failure = excessive feelings of inadequacy of inferiority Stage 5: Identity v. Role Confusion • Adolescence to earl adulthood • Adolescence as a core time to form identity • Must solve the question of who they are or lie in confusion & what role they should play as adults Social Development: Part II Review • Explain the function of the 3 personality structures proposed by Freud – id, ego, & superego - Id: Devil, I want this, I want it know, I should have it now; operates on the pleasure principle, wants to have needs met & urges satisfied immediately - Ego: Mediator between id and superego, based upon reality principle; rational, logical problem solving component of personality - Superego: Angel, morals; based on child’s internalization of parents attributes, beliefs and standards (the conscience) • Describe the similarities & differences between Freud’s and Erikson’s psychoanalytic theories - Similarities: biological maturation leas to developmental changes, continuity of individual differences (early experiences shape later development) & therefor discontinuity in development - Differences: Fred psychoSEXual drives, Erikson, psychSOCial drives and crises Central Developmental Issues • Continuity: all learning theories believe that there are no qualitatively different stages • Mechanisms of change: learning involves basic principles such as reinforcement & observational learning • Research & Child’s Welfare: therapeutic approached based on learning principles are widely used to treat children with a variety of problem Behaviorism • John B. Watson - Believed that children’s development is determined by their social environment - Learning through conditioning is the primary mechanism of development - Psychologists should only study that which they could observe, not the mind (e.g. id, ego, and superego) • What is classical conditioning? • Little Albert Experiment – Made little Albert fear of white mice, paired a loud noise whenever rat was in the room, Albert afraid of loud noise, mad little Albert afraid of any white object (e.g. white rabbit), conditioned little Albert to fear - How to get the child to stop fearing something? o Systematic Desensitization: a from of therapy based on classical conditioning, in which positive responses are gradually conditioned to stimuli that initially elicited a highly negative response o E.g. start with showing them a picture of a mouse, gradually move forward “up the ladder” to holding the mouse Operant Conditioning • B.F. Skinner - Believed we repeat behaviors that lead to favorable outcomes (reinforcement) and suppress those that result in unfavorable outcomes (punishment) - Believed every act of our life is due to this pattern of reinforcement/punishment • Discovered that attention can be a powerful reinforce • Discovered that intermittent reinforcement makes behaviors last longer without reinforcement (resistant to extinction) - E.g. Playing slots, always going to think “just this next time, I’ll win” • Developed behavioral modification Social Learning Theory • Observations and limitation, rather than reinforcement, as the primary mechanisms of development • Albert Bandura: preschool children can acquire new behaviors through observing others - Vicarious reinforcement, seeing the reinforcement that other’s are experiencing, don’t need to experience it yourself - E.g. Bobo doll experiment o Found that positive incentive group did behavior observed more than kids that did not receive incentive • Reciprocal determinism: child-environment influences operate in both directions, kids influences environment, environment influences kid • Perceived self- efficacy: individuals’ belief about how effectively he/she can control his own behaviors, thoughts, and emotions, to achieve a desired goal Current Perspectives (Strengths) • Learning theories are based upon empirical research, can be empirically tested, and therefore have inspired much research • Practical info for parental socialization practices, how children learn social behaviors, clinical procedures Weaknesses • Lack of attention to biological influences • Lack of attention to the role of cognition in influencing behavior • Major theoretical claims are stated too vaguely to be testable Theories of Social Cognition • Three main categories: - Selman’s Stage Theory of role Taking - Dodge’s IP theory of social problem solving - Dweck’s Theory of Self Attributions and Achievement Motivation Social Cognition • Focus on kid’s ability to think and reason about: - Their own behavior - Other people’s thoughts, feelings, motives & behaviors • As children’s cognitive development progresses, the way children think of themselves and others becomes more abstract Central Developmental Issues • The Active Child: believes children actively shape their own development (self-socialization) • Individual Differences: between the thinking & behavior of males & females, of aggressive and non-aggressive children Selman’s Stage Theory of Role Taking • Selman: - Focused on role taking : being aware of the perspective of another person thereby better understanding that person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings - Believed, like Piaget, that before the age of 6, children are virtually unaware that there is any perspective other than their own - Similar to Piaget Dodge’s IP Theory of Social Problem Solving • Dodge: Emphasizes crucial role of cognitive processes in social behavior • Research on children’s use of aggression as a problem-solving strategy Aggression and Kids’ Problem Solving • Children are told a scenario to imagine themselves as a victim. Describe what they would do and why • Children tend to have a hostile attributional bias (the general expectation that others are antagonistic or mean to them) • Children often conclude tat retaliation is the appropriate response to the peer. This results in a self-fulfilling prophecies • Negative impact in schools Dweck’s Theory of Self Attributions and Achievement Motivation • Carol Dweck: Children have differences in what attributions they make about themselves • Entity/helpless orientation: general tendency to attribute success & failure to enduring aspects of the self & to give up in the face of failure • incremental/mastery orientation: general tendency to attribute success & failure to the amount of effort expended & to persist in the face of failure Dweck’s Theory: Research • In preschool, some children will choose to do an easier puzzle; others will choose to do a puzzle they have failed previously • Older children have 2 views of intelligence: - Entity Theory of intelligence: person’s level of intelligence is fixed & unchangeable - Incremental Theory of Intelligence: person’s intelligence can grow as a function of experience • Results in different kinds of feedback to be given to children as they attempt to learn new things