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One Day of Notes
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by lin Notetaker on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 201 at University of Washington taught by Randal Beam in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Communication I in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
39 410 unrrco sures INFORMATION oeuvres SUMMARY 39 An important distinction may be made between two kinds of in fluence prestige and personal in uence The former prestige1 is the kind of in uence thatcor nes with ocoupation of ltey positions of power or prominence in society personal in uence is exercised by persons at all levels While prestige is exerted through access to the mass media especially press1 radio and lms personal influence is largely a matter of facetoface contacts The most in uential in persoan contacts are called opinion feeders Such opinion leaders may likewise be persons of prestige but are as often not for prestige and personal influence may each be exerted independently of the other 39 3 Even in countries like the United States with maximum develop ment of the mass meclia 1 persontopcrson communication of ideas retains great importance The opinion leaders1 who make such inter personal contacts act as conveyors of ideas from the mass media 39 to the bull of the people modifying the ideas in the process of tmnsmission Personal in uence is marked by two characteristics of note it is infomai and it is specialized The term informal refers to the fol 39 39lowh rg facts 1 Personal in uence is not due to any rules or authority but comes about 39 through the recognition of his everyday acquaintances of the opinion leader s sound judgmentquot 39 2 Personal in uence is not organized 393 Personal in uence is not localized in the formal leaders of hierarchlat groups but cuts across formal lines of authority The formal leadens may not the pepular views as do the opinion leaders quotJl i flPiiisona1 in uence is specialized in that opinion leaders usually 23 i e1 influence only m regard to one eld of 1ntercst whether iquot39linarlieting or39public affairs It is the opinion leader in the aii er greagwho is of most signi cance here and a detailed picture of 39 3939characteristics as revealed by United States studies is 1lq f3939quotItquotL l I I a 39 I 39 0 upon leaders may be identi ed by conducting interviews and quotI I 39tliiquot39quot39 5quot 39 II a u aslpng respondents questions concerning their sources of information 5 c ples of the land of questions useful 1n this connection are offered usy ha m4 u r I 1 quotn gab1 pest Is39stb 39 r Fi EVA339 39 4 1 ourquot 77 9 F9 1 39 39 E El lc39 011 n I rsquE E39Es v v3 LN 33 a r r 391quot 01 to a 3 539 3r ire 4 to h FT W F 139 r Ufa e It v9 1 quot a we it 39 wt 1 E J as 39 rafts a re I b o quot w u n n I air5395 5 1 t W I d II Inc i 1 k quot asseteastern J 39 r u a n In M o n a o g o 391 3 I E a o I A HADLEY CANTRIL Elie Invasion from Mars On the39evening of October 30 1933 thousands of Americans be came panicstricken by a broadcast purported to describe an invaston of Martians which threatened our whole civilization Probably never before have so many people in all wallet of life and in all parts of the country become so suddenly and so intensely disturbed as they did on this night i Such rare occurrences provide opportunities for the social sctennst to study mass behavior They must be exploited when they come Although the social scientist unfortunately cannot usually prcdlct such situations and have his tools of investigation ready to analyze the phenomenon while it is still on the wing he can begin his work before the effects of the crisis are over and memories are blurred The situa tion created by the broadcast was one which shows us how the com mon man reacts in a time of stress and strain It gives us insights into his intelligence his anxieties and his needs which we could never get by tests or strictly experimental studies The panic situation we have investigated had all the avor of everyday life and at the same time provided a semierperimental condition for research In spite of the unique conditions giving rise to this particular panic the writer has attempted to indicate throughout the study the pattern of the circum stances which from a psychological point of view1 might make this the prototype of any panic The fact that this panic was created as a result of a radio broadcast L This is a summary by Dr Gantril of part of the volume entitled The Invasion from Mars by Hadley Cantril Hate Gaudet and Herta Hemog published and copyright by the Princeton University Press Princetonr 1940 This summary appeared rst in Newcomb Hartley and others Readings in Social Potoholagy published and copyright by Henry Holt or Company New York 1947 and is here reprinted by permission of author and copyright holder Dr Carini1 is professor of psychology at Princeton l l l l 412 HADLEY camsm is today no mcrc circumstance The importance of radio s role in cur rent national and international affairs is too well known to be re counted here By its very nature radio is the medium par excellence for informing all segments of a population of current happenings for arousing In them a common sense of fear or joy and for exciting them to similar reactions directed toWard a single objective Because the social phenomenon in question was so complex several methods were employed to seek out different answers and to com pare results obtained by one method with those obtained by another Much of our information was derived from detailed interviews of 135 persons Over 100 of these persons were selected because they were known to have been upset by the broadcast Long before the broadcast had ended people all over the United States were praying crying eeing frantically to escape death from the Martians Some ran to rescue loved ones Others telephoned fare wells or warnings hurried to informneighbois sought information from newspapers or radio stations summoned ambulances and police cars At least six million people heard the broadcast At least a million of them were frightened or disrurbed For weeks after the broadcast newspapers carried humaninterest l m 39 bowel stories relating the shock andterror of local citizens Men and women 39 throughout the country could have described their feelings and reac tions on that fateful evening Our own interviewers and correspond ents gathered hundreds of accounts A few of these selected almost at random will give us a glimpse of the excitement Let the people speak for themselves I knew it was something terrible and Iwas frightened said Mrs Ferguson a northern New Jersey housewife to the inquiring inter viewer quotBut I didn39t ltnow just what it was I couldn39t Inalre myself believe it was the end of the world I ve always heard that when the quotworld would come to an end it would come so fast nobody would know so why should God get in touch with this announcer When they told us what road to take and get up over the hills and the chil dren began to cry the family decided to go out We tool blankets and my granddaughter wanted to take the cat and the canary We were outside the garage when the neighbor s boy came back and told us it was a play From a small midwestern town came Joseph Hendley39s report quotThat Hallowe en Boo sure had our family on its ltnccs before the program wists half over God knows how we prayed to Him last Sun day It was a lesson in more than one thing to us My mother went out and looked for Mars Dad was hard to convince or skeptical or sumpin but he even got to believing it Brother Joe as usual got more excited than he could show Brother George wasn t home Aunt Grace 3 good Catholic began to pray with Uncle Henry Lily got sick tern E392l5 rq ihr 5 F 394 I u g 45 933 ny Li quot 3939J39sLqo I 39 393939 t H IRQF nil 6h r r 39t 2 cedars J f quots39l39 1 Irma a L 39 39 39 o u quotuAq39 ll5 H art naquII Ml J L39 I LInalr3 FA rh JE 04 q u rfqquot39 039 0 1335 t a quotquot wan quotHIquot unim ever as quotquot a I 7 31quot 539 1 quott row211 n o q 39r39 5 tt iiquot 3 Q15 39 illn I u a s l 39 u H I ul gagglow 1 IL 39 shesf Fv 4 a i was 3 h l 39t39 quot n 39 The Invasion from Mars I 413 to her stomach I don39t lmow what I did exactly but Iltnow I prayed harder and more earnestly than ever before Just as39 soon as We were convinced that this thing was real how pretty all things on earth seemed how soon we put our trust in God Archie Burbank a llingstation operator in Newark described his reactions My girl friend and I stayed in the car for a while just driving around Then we followed the lead of a friend All of us ran into a grocery store and asked the man if we coold go into his collar He said What39s the matter Are you trying to ruin my business So he chased us out A crowd collected We rushed to an apartment house and asked the man in the apartment to let us in his cellar He said 39I don t have any cellar Get away Then people started to rush out of the apartment house all undressed We got into the car and listened some more Suddenly the announcer was gassed the station went dead so we tried another station but nothing would come on Then we went to a gas station and lled up our tank in preparation for just riding as far as we could The gas station man didn t know anything about it Then one friend male decided he would call up the Newark Evening News He found out it was a play We listened to the rest of the play and then went dancingquot Mrs Joslin who lives in a poor section of a large eastern city and whose husband is a day labdrer said I was terribly frighterted I wanted to pack and talre my child in my arms gather up my friends and get in the car and just go nor as far as we could But what I did was just set by one window prayin listenin r and scared stiff and my husband by the other snifflin and lookin out to see if people were runnin Then when the announcer said evacuate the city I ran and called my boarder and started with my child to rush down the stairs not waitin to ltcteh my hat or anything When I got to the foot of the stairs I just couldn t get out I don t know why Meantime my husband he tried other stations and found them still runnin He couldn t smell any gas or see people runnin so he called me back and told me it was just a play So I set39down still ready to go at any minute till I heard Orson Welles say Folks I hope we ain t alarmed you This is just a play Then I inst set If we are to explain the reaction then we must answer two basic questions Why did this broadcast frighten some people when other fantastic broadcasts do not And why did this broadcast frighten some people but not others An answer to the rst question must be sought in the characteristics of this particular program which aroused false standards of judgment in so many listeners No one rea ng the script can deny that the broadcast was so real istic for the rst few minutes that it was almost credible to even rela tively sophisticated and wellminformed listeners The sheer dramatic excellence of the broadcast must not be overlooked This unusual 41 1 HADLEY CAN TRII realism of the performance may be attributed to the fact thatthis early parts of the broadcast fell within the existing39standards of judgmimt r of the listeners 1 A large proportion of listenersr particularly those in the lower in name and educational brackets have grown to rely more on the radio 1 than on the newspapers for their news Almost all of the listeners who E had been frightened and who Were interviewed mentioned somewhere i during the course of their retrospections the con dence theyr had in I radio and their expectation that it would be used ior such important announcements A fewof their comments indicate their attitudes i l l l l l 5 We have so much faith in broadcasting In a crisis it has to reach all people That s what radio is here for quotThe announcer would not say if it was not true They always quote if something is a play 5 As in many situations where events and ideas are so complicated or far removed from one s own immediate everyday experience that only the expert can really understand them here too the layman was forced to rely on the art for his interpretation The logical expert in this instance was the astronomer Those mentioned all ctitious were Professor Farrell of the Mount Jen nings Observatory of Ghicago Professor Eicrson of the Princeton Ob servatory Professor Morse of MacMillan University in Toronto Professor Indcllhoffer of the California astronomical Society and astronomers and scienti c bodies in England France and Germany Professor Richard Pierson Orson Welles was the chief character in the drama 39 39 When the situation called for organized defense and action the expert was once more brought in General Montgomery Smith com mander of the State Militia at Trenton Mr Harry McDonald vice president of the Red Cross Captain Lansing of the Signal Corps and naily the Secretary of the Interior described the situation gave orders for evacuation and attack or urged every man to do his duty This dramatic technique had 39its effect I believed the broadcast or soon as I heard the professor from Princeton and the officials in Washingtonquot quotI lmew it was an awfully dangerous situation when all those mili tary men were there and the Secretary of State spoke The realistic nature of the broadcast was further enhanced by de scriptions of particular occurrences that listeners could readily imagine Liberal use was made of the colloquial expressions to be expected on dispels an occasion The gas was a sort of yellowishgreenquot the cop quotF39Egquot0ne side there Keep back I tell youquot a voice shouts 39quotlgarrligthing s unscrewingquot An example of the speci ciiy of detail quot quoti 39 quotunearnent of Brigadier General Montgomery Smith quotI fuguesteel by the Governor of New Jersey to place the 4 rrrmtrir 39quot 39 7 quotquot q u ergohills p re goes l U in Intxiquot 39 Hawa rains 39 39 39I39quot Fa 1H hquot E Lyrasamurai o 39 quot50 oorIJ 4tI139ir 0 J39 u I ALIJ39s gLF IH iT I u Lac w 7 q o w 39139 39a o n urns run quotr 39 39o a I u o a I a a tpa gv h h e ed a c 1 o 11 39quotdh39 r L39n I ur 39 39 a 1 439 15 The Invan39oa from M arr 39 15 counties of Mercer and Middlesex as far west as Princeton and east to Jamcsburg under martial law No one will be permitted to enter this area except by special pass issued by state or military authoriJ ties Four companies of State Militia are proceeding fromTrenton to Grovcrs Mill and will aid in the evacuation of homes within the range of military operations The events reported proceeded from the relatively credible to the highly incredible The rst announcements were more or less believ 39 able although unusual to be sure First there is an atmospheric dis turbance then explosions of incandescent gasquot A scientist then reports that his seismograph has registered a shock of earthquake in tensity This is followed by the discovery of a meteorite that has splintered nearby trees in its fall So far so good But as the less credible bits of the story begin to enter the clever dramatist also indicates that he too has dif culty in believing what he sees When we learn that the object is no meteorite but a metal casing we are also told that the whole picture is a strange scene like something out of a modern Arabian Nightsquot fantastic that the more daring souls are venturing nearquot Before we are informed that the end of the casing is beginning to unscrew we experience the an nouncer s own astonishment Ladies and gentlemen this is terri cquot When the top is off he says This is the most terrifying thiirg I have ever witnessed This is the most extraordinary experience I can t find words 39 The bewilderment of the listener is shared by the eyewitness When the scientist is himself puzzled the layman recognizes the extraordinary intelligence of the strange creatures No explanation of the event can be provided The resignation and hopelessness of the Secretary of the Interior counseling us to place our faith in God provides no effec tive guide for action In spite of the realism of the broadcast it would seem highly un likely that any listener would take it seriously had he heard the an nouncements that were clearly made at the beginning of the hour He might then have been excited even frightened But it would be an excitement based on the dramatic realism of the program There would not be the intense feeling of personal involvement He would know that the events were happening out therequot in the studio not right herequot in his own state or his own county In one instance a correct esthetically detached or dramatic standard of judgment would be used by the listener to interpret events in another instance a false realistic or news standard of judgment would be employed f Tuning in late was a very essential condition for the arousal of a false standard of judgment To be sure many people recognized the broad cast as a play even though they tuned in late It is important to raise and to answer the question of how anyone who tuned in at the be A 5173 1 aser mesa 415 Hanan earnest g The Invasion from Mars Ill ginning cal d harm mistakcn thCClcai39ll39 intmdllccd Play for 21 nor 5 I tuned in and heard that a meteor had fallen Then when they broadcast Analysis of these cases reveals two main reasons why such a talked about monsters I thought something was wrong So I looked in mismicrpmmtmn 3305 In39thc 5139 Pia man P801319 Who mncd in the newspaper to see what program was supposed to be on and dis to hear a play by the Mercury Theatre thought the regular dramatic 39 covmd it was Univ a Play program had been interrupted to give special news bulletins The 3 Those who Tried to Check the Program Against Other Information but Who for Various Reasons Continued to Believe the Broadcast We on Authentic News Report I Two characteristic di 39erences separated the people in this group a from those who made successful cheeks In the rst place it was technique was not a new one after their experience with radio report ing oi the war crisis in September 1933 The other major reason for the misunderstanding is the widespread habit of not paying attention to the rst announcements of a program Some people do not listen 1er quotfr tsair 1 uu l 4 I H uh l s i Eggndvely to their radios until they are aware that something of par titular interest is being broadcast dif cult to determine from the interviews just why these people wanted Tuning in late was very decisive in determining whether or not the to Check Elf The did m 5331 to be seeking Widen to it stcner would follow the Program as a play or as almws report For i the authputicity of the reports They appeared rather to be frightened I the story of the Martian invasion was so realistic that misinterpreta Souls trying to nd out whether or not they were yet m any personal ll tion was apt to miss withaut Proper warning Signals danger In the second place the type of checlnng behavior they used 4 In spite of the fact that mam Pmons tuned in Lat to hear this mm 1 was singularly ineffective unreliable The most frequent method realistic broadcast by no means all of them believed it was news And WPIOW d bY Elmo mmthlrds 0f tins group 3935 19 190139 9 ti 39 i not an of those who mgught the invasion was upon them bchavcd thc wmdow or go outdoors Several of them telephoned their fnends or same way in the face of danger Before we can undcrstand the masons ran to consult their neighbors for the varying belnnriorT thereactions must be arranged in some sig Them 3m 53quot 13931 11133035 W11 the Ch Cks mad 13 that Fermi were ineli ecrual For some of them the new information obtained only veri ed the interpretation which their already xed standard of judg A men39t provided I ni cant grouping Otherwise no fruitful conceptualization is possible a I A v quotM quot quotFrn bpng hcni r g o 0 39 crasslsnns 39ms nsrsnsas an 39 ii I looked out of the window and everything looked thesame as i 1 Those Who Checked the Internal Evidence of the Ereodeost Equot usual 50 I though I hadn t reached am Igcgz an TEL The persons in this category were those who did not remain fright we looked out 39Of the window and Wyoming Avenue was black y encd throughout the whole broadcast because they were able to dis 39with39cars ngplg mem mning away I figured 39 cern that the program was ctitious Some realized that the reports No cars came down my street Ts a c is fammad an account of the must be false because they sounded so much like certain ction literam roads being destroyed I thought ture they were accustomed to 39 quotAt rst I was very intercstgd in the fall of thc meteor It isn t often 4 Those Who Made Me Attempt to Check the Broadcast or the Event that 1th nd a big onquot lust Whm it fEHS But when it started to an ii39ii39 I1 is usuallyr more dif cult to discover will a Person did not do some J It was just like some of the stories I read in Amazing Stories but it 100k for Signs Of the Martians in their vicinity than it WEE 10 dttcnninc was even more excitingquot why those who attempted unsuccessful checks displayed their aimless i behavior Over half of the people in this group were so frightened that i I 2 Those Who Checked the Broadcast Aselnsr Other Information and J39quot the either stopp d listening ran around in a f1th or ambit d Learned Thor It Was a Play 39a b l 39 J I I av1or that can only be described as paralyzed y 3 ml 115mm m t0 039 mamaquot for the 53315 reasons 35 Some of them reported that they were so frightened they never i those at the rst groupmthey were suspicmus of the quotnewsquot they thought of chgcking l CFC gating 501133 51111131 tlfmighli thc m13quot33911395 We 10 faf astm to 239 quotWe were so intent upon listening that we didn t have enough sense i i tidlCVC CHIC1395 dCtCCtCCl thc mCEI39CdelC SPCCCFS ICVFEJCd Whll a few 5quot to try other hookqlPs Jwg was just so frighjg gdf u E 115F355 ChECI Cdfht Program 1115 FEEDS 1393 semiid thc 3501131313 Others adopted an attitude of complete resignation For them any thms 0 doe T1161 111Ede Of venfnng tlj lr 111111111165 W35 10 COmPBm 1 attempt to check up like any other behavior appeared senseless y thc CW5 011 the ngmm to 501113031 mformauon quotI was writing a history theme The girl from upstairs came and l l screw and monsters came out I said to myself 39They ive taken one of thing than why he did Consequently it is more di icuit for us to ex tftoss Amazing Stories and are eating it out It just couldn t be real plain why people in this group did not attempt to verify the39news or 0 394 ni l uquot I I 39139 4118 stances earmur made rne go up to her place39Everybody was so excited I felt as if I was going crazy and kept on saying what can we do what di srsnea does it make whether we die sooner or lateri We were holding each other Everything seemed unimportant in the face of death I was afraid to the just kept on listeningquot Some felt that in view of the crisis situation action was demanded I A few prepared immediately for their escape or for death I couldn t stand it so I turned it off I don t remember when but everything was coming closer My husband wanted to put it back on but I told him we d better do something instead of just listen so we started to packquot Some listeners interpreted the situation in such a way that they were not interested in making a cheekup In a few instances the indi vidual tuned in so late that he missed the most incredible parts of the program and was only aware of the fact that some kind of con ict was being waged quotI was in my drugstore and my brother phoned and said Turn the radio onI a meteor has just fallen We did and heard gas Was com ing up South Street There were a few customers and we all began wondering where it could some from I was worried about the gas it was spreading so rapidly but I was puzzled as to what was actually happening when I heard airplanes I thought another country was attacking us was run same inappropriately The psychological pattern revealed by these and other in uences must be shown we are to understand the situation war ms SUGGESTION was on was nor artisvsn 1 What is most inconceivable and therefore especially interesting P53quot uphologically is why so many people did not do something to verify the ginfonnanon they were receiving from their loudspeakers The failure accounts for the persistence of the fright To understand I whether the cause is a legitimate one or not Hit is nieces39 sec precisely what happens to an individual s mental processes pfevents him from making an adequate checkup o o I 5 J39 e I 1 1 I3 l nomad a 1 MhH lquot r39 39ilquotF J39 quot i I 2quotquot 3939 a u 1 IJ n o c 39 39 o I 1w 1 13 quotI a 39 453 nl L The Invasion from Mars 419 The persons who were frightened by the broadcast were for this occasion at least highly suggestible that is they believed what they heard without making sufficient checks to prove to themselves that the broadcast was only a story Those who were notfrightened and those who believed the broadcast ftir only a short time were not suggestible they were able to display what psychologists once called a quotcritical faculty The problem is then to determine why some people are suggestible or to state the problem differently why some people lack critical ability There are essentially four psychological conditions that create in an individual the particular state of mind we know as suggestibility All these may be described in terms of the concept of standard of judgment In the rst place individuals may refer a given stimulus to a stand ard or to several standards of judgment which they think are relevant for interpretation The mental content into which the stimulus enters in this case is of such a character that it is welcomed as thoroughly consistent and without contradiction A person with standards of judg ment that enable him to place or give meaning to a stimulus in an almost automatic way nds nothing incongruous about such accept ance his standards have led him to expect the possibility of such an occurrence We have found that many of the persons who did not even try to check the broadcast had preexisting mental sets that made the stimulus so understandable to thorn that ey immediately accepted it as true Highly religious people who believed that God willed and controlled the destinies of man were already furnished with a particular standard of judgment that would make an invasion of our planet and a destruc tion of its members merely an act of Godquot This was particularly true if the religious frame of reference was 39of the eschatological variety pro vidingthe individual With de nite attitudes or beliefs regarding the end of the world Other people we found had been so influenced by the recent war scare that they believed an attack by a foreign power was imminent and an invasionmwhether it was due to the Japanese Hitler or hiartiansuwas not unlikely Some persons had built up such fanciful notions of the possibilities of science that they could easily believe the powers of strange superscientists were being turned against them perhaps merely for experimental purposes Whatever the cause for the genesis of the standards of judgment providing ready acceptance of the event the fact remains that many persons already possessed a context within which they immediately placed the stimulus None of their other existing standards of judg ment was suf ciently relevant to engender disbelief We found this to be particularly true of persons whose lack of opportunities or abilities to acquire information or training had insufficiently forti ed them with pertinent standards of judgment that would make the inter 1 43920 Hanev canrau pretation of the broadcast as a play seem plausible More highly edu cated people we found were better able to relate a given event to a standard of judgment they knew was an appropriate referent In such instances the knowledge itself was used as a standard of judgment to discount the information received in the broadcast These listeners then had the ability to refer to relevant standards of judgment which they could rely on for checking purposes and therefore had no need of further orientation A second condition of suggestibility exists when an individual is not sure of the interpretation he should place on a given stimulus and when he lacks adequate standards of judgment to make a reliable check on his interpretation In this situation the individual attempts to check on his information but fails for one of three reasons i He may check his original information against unreliable data which may themselves be affected by the situation he is checking We found that persons who checked unsucccssfully tended to check against informa tion obtained from friends or neighbors Obviously such people were apt themselves to be tinged with doubt and hesitation which would only con rm early suspicions 2 A person may rationalize his check ing information according to the original hypothesis he is checking and which he thinks he has only tentatively accepted Many listeners made hasty mental or behavioral checks but the false standard of judg ment they had already accepted was so pervasive that their checkups were rationalized as con rmatory evidence For example one woman said that the announcer s charred body was found too quickly but she gured the announcer was excited and had made a mistake A man noticed the incredible speeds but thought they were relaying reports or somethingquot Others turned to di 39erent stations but thought the broadcasters were deliberately trying to calm the people A woman looked out of her window and saw a greenish eerie light which she thought was from the Martians 3 In contrast to those who believe almost any check they make are the people who earnestly try to verify their information but do not have so f ciently wellgrounded standards of judgment to determine whether or not their new sources of infor mation are reliable A third and perhaps more general condition of suggestibility exists when an individual is confronted with a stimulus which he must in terpret or which he would like to interpret and when none of his existing standards of judgment is adequate to the task On such occa sions the individual s mental context is unstrucmrcd the stimulus does not t any of his established categories and he scelts a standard that will suf ce him The less well structured is his mental context the fewer meanings he is able to call forthr the less able will he be to understand the relationship between himself and the stimulus and the greater willbecome his anxiety And the more desperate his need for The Invasion from ier 39 421 interpretation the more likely will he be to accept the rst interpreta tion given him Many conditions existed to create in the individuals who listened to the invasion from Mars a chaotic mental uprverse that contained no stable standards of judgment by means of which the strange event reported could be evaluated A lack of information and formal educational training had left many persons Without any gener alized standards of judgment applicable to this novel situation And even if they did have a few such standards these were vague and tenuously held because they had not proved suf cient m the past to interpret other phenomena This was especially true of those persons who had been most adversely affected by the conditions of the times I The prolonged economic unrest and the consequent insecurity felt by many of the listeners was another cause for bewrlderment The de pression had already lasted nearly ten years People were still o ut of work Why didn t somebody do something about it Why didn t the experts nd a solution What was at fuse of it acny way what would ha on no one could t gain a mys enous 1n tted the patteiiiJ of the mysterious events of thedecad39e The lack of a sophisticated relatively stable economic or political name of refer ence created in many persons a psychological disequilibrium which made them seek a standard of judgment for this parncular event It was another phenomenon in the outside world beyond their control and comprehension Other people possessed certain economic sfmsnty and social status but wondered how long this would last wnh things in such a turmoil They too sought a stable interpretranch one that would at least give this new occurrence meaning The war scan had left many persons in a state of complete bewrlderrnent They did not know what the trouble was all about or why the United States should be so concerned The complex ideological class and national antago nisms responsible for the crises were by no means fully comprehended The situation was painfully serious and distressingly confused What would happen nobody could foresee The Martian invasion wasnlalllijt another event reported over the radio It was even more perso y dangerous and no more enigmatic No creating standards were ava 1 able to judge its meaning or signi cance But there was39qurck need for judgment and it was provided by the announcers scientists an critics 2mlibrsons with higher education on the other hand1 we found had let acquired more generalized standards of judgment winch they could put their faith in The result was that many of them knew that the phenomenal speeds with which the announcers and soldiers moved was impossible even in this day and age The greater the possibility of 3 checking against a variety of reliable standards of judgment the less suggestib1e will a person be We found that some persons who to more normal circumstances might have had Critical ab tty were so DVCT 43922 HADLE carrrnn 1 I39F A 39 aquot r a u 1 11L The Innerion from riders 39 423 39 ill whelmed by their articular listenin situation 39 39 39 s r mint r as suspendfd This indicatesgthat a higllil ahcihliliethi siiidtiii if mi if m 3511 Th quotldl fldlf fl iii 33 my Emmi Phil 39 ationl of the external stimulus world may at times be experienced i 83 139 namm Y or 50cm Y c Imam 0 t a amans was a 5 with suf cicnt intth btcausc of its Pcrs nal impli a om to inhibit 3 direct threat to hie to other lives that one loved as well as to all the operation of usually applicable internal structurations or standards omerthihmif d Yam Thc rimming WE dcitmvmf pr mmny 39l E lUdB39mimt Othcr Persons who may normallv have exhibited critical iii iv Ech m d chmtuamgwasi t Eng 1 at a 310115 a lame mm ability WEE unable to do so in this situation because their own cum tton rcsu to w an moi Irectedl eh avior secme possib e ne was nml insecurities and anxictics mad than mccp hlt to suggestion if a faced With the alternative of resigning oneself and all of ones values when confronted with a personally dangerous circumstance In such fr comflc l nnihjahon or Offmalungl a lapelate rt to escape i instances the behavioral consequence is the same as for a person who m t c c D langcr 9r 0 allapcahmg Ito lanai 5g tr Port or has no standards of judgment to begin with but the Psvchologieal orcliigfeliz on w mm on vague t Dug can 39 mm t c on I PT E S E E EE bb iydf tvhcn an ind qd I t iquot If dim assuged that destruction was inevitable then certain limited 39 391 I r onl r lacks standards of judgment by means of which he rildiit bailer lag POSSIbIc an could CW mf e Emmi mm ones Malian himstlf but lacks wen the malimtion that any intcrprcta om an 3 ga er of s loved 1time arounpfapddpens one attempted escape possible other than the one originally presented He accepts as truth it on if run to t c Olgscbo bum Specdfalvay m age 0135mm whatever he bears or roads without even thinking to compare it to iii 01 n cm some gagProud om pron 39 curbO t litwall s a ten 390 othcr information 1g still believed that something or someone rmght repulse the enemy one 39 could appeal to God or reel protection from those who had protected w SUCH EXTREME Emma 33 one 1n the past Objecnvelv none of these modes of behavior was a iii direct attack on the problem at hand nothing was done to remove Granted that some people believed the broadcast to be true why the cause of the crisis The behavior in a panic is characteristically did they become so hysterical Why did they pray telephone relatives lundirected and from the point of view of the situation at hand dnve at dangerous speeds cry awaken sleeping children and flee 53 functions 11531955 Of all the possible modes of reaction they may have followed winr did all In short the extreme behavior evoked by the broadcast was due these particular patterns emerge The obvious answer is that this was to the enormous felt egoinvolvement the situation created and to the a serious affair As in all other panics the individual believed his Q complete inabilitv of the individual to alleviate or control the conse Wellbcing his safety or his life was at stake The situation was a real Ii 5 quenccs oi the invasion The coming of the Martians did not present 39g threat to him Just what constitutes a personal threat to an individual 113 39 a sibration where the individual could preserve one value if he sacri must be brie v examined quot439 ced another It was not a matter of saving one s country by giving When an indrvrdual believes that a situation threatens him he means 339 l one s life of helping to usher in a new religion bv selfdenial of risking that it threatens not only his physical self but all of those things and quot ti turbed if a particular race is persecuted in a distant country because I that persecution runs counter to their ideal of human justice and 39 jldemocracy they will be attered if someone admires an idea of theirs era painting the have completed occurs when some higth cherished rather cominonlv ac ce value is threatened and when no certain elimination of the rq31 4 the thier bullet to save the family silver In this situation the indi P501311 Which he somehow regards as a part of him This Ego of an ii iii vidual stood to lose all his values at once Nothing could be done i individual is essentially composed of the manv social and personal to save any of them Panic was inescapable The false standard of values II has accepted He feels threatened if his investments are judgment used by the individual to interpret the broadcast was riot threatened he feels insulted if his children or parents are insulted he 3 i itself the motivational cause of the behavior but it was absolutely feels elated if his alma mater wins the sectional football cup The fl essential in arousing the needs and values which may be regarded as particular pattern of values that have been intracepted by an indi 3395 the sources of the actions exhibited A false standard of judgment vidual will give him thenI a particular Ego For some individuals this 2 L aroused by the broadcast and causing the individual to be disturbed is expanded to include broad ideals and ambitions They will be dis iiiquot had its roots in values which were apart of the Ego 39lI
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