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Ling 301 Week 6 Notes - Syntax

by: Johanna Murphy

Ling 301 Week 6 Notes - Syntax Ling 301

Johanna Murphy
GPA 3.96

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Week 6 Lecture notes on syntax, diagramming sentences
Intro to Linguistic Analysis
Melissa Baese-Berk
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johanna Murphy on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Ling 301 at University of Oregon taught by Melissa Baese-Berk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Linguistic Analysis in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Oregon.

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Date Created: 11/07/15
Ling 301 Week 6 Lecture Syntax  Deals with how we put words together to make larger structures of meaning Constituency  Structuring of words and larger units within sentences  Constituents can be individual words, or strings of words o Structural units that make up the meaning of sentences  “Mark drove the new car around the lot” o Constituents: “new car”, “around the lot” Kinds of Constituents  Noun Phrases (NP) o Contain noun o Also called “referring expressions”  Prepositional Phrases (PP) o Start with a preposition  Verb Phrases (VP) o Contain verb and related information o Also called “predictions” or “predicate”  Sentences are a constituent on their own (S)  NPs and VPs are the most important types  Just about every sentence needs at least one VP and one NP Testing for Constituency  Tests to determine if strings of words are constituents  “I watched the bear through  my binoculars” o “through my binoculars” is referring to “watched”, so it doesn’t include “the  bear” 1) Usage Alone Test o A constituent can be used alone o Can be an answer to a question i. “who did you see?”  “the man with the red hat” ii. “what did you see?”  “the bear” iii. “the bear through my binoculars”, no sentence that really implies this  entire phrase as an answer o If it’s difficult to come up with a question that would have that answer, it’s  probably not a constituent 2) The Substitution Test o Can it be replaced by a pro­ ?  i. Pronouns – he/she/it ii. Pro­verbs – do/do so iii. Pro­adjectives – such/so/like that iv. Pro­locatives – there/here 1. (a locative is a PP that refers to a place) o “John drove the car” i. The car  “it” ii. Drove the car  “did” iii. John drove  ? 3) Movement Test o Many constituents can be moved to other parts of the sentence i. With binoculars, I saw the bear (works) ii. With the red hat, I saw the man (doesn’t work) 4) Coordination Test o Only constituents of the same kind can be joined by a conjunction like and/or o “I saw the man with the red hat and the big mustache” (NP) o “I saw the man and hit him with my car” (VP) What is not a Constituent? Two or more words that are next to each other but aren’t necessarily structurally  connected o “I saw the man with the red hat”  “I saw the man” isn’t a constituent because it leaves “with the red hat” by  itself  “the man with the red hat” is a constituent Linear Order  Words must appear in a particular sequence o Depends on the language  VOS language – sentences follow structure of verb­object­subject  SUO language – sentences follow structure of subject­verb­object (English) Ambiguity  “bank” has multiple meanings o Place where you store money o Edge of a river o Verb “to bank on something”  Structural ambiguity o “I saw the man in the cave on a hill with a telescope”  Who has the telescope? You? The man? The hill? o “I watched the bear in the cave on a hill through a telescope”  Less ambiguous because it’s unlikely that the bear has the telescope Hierarchical Order  Hierarchical relationships between constituents o “hungry dogs and cats are annoying” – is “hungry” referring to dogs and cats, or  just dogs? Tree Diagrams  Because of structural ambiguity, sentences can have multiple tree representations “I        saw       the       man         with          the        red       hat”                                                           NP                                                 NP                                                                                                                                                                            PP                                                                       NP                                                      VP                                      S “I        saw           the           man            with           the          binoculars”                                                           NP                                                      NP                                                                                                                                                                                                     PP                                                            VP                                        S  In the above case, “the binoculars” is modifying “saw”, indicating that the speaker has  the binoculars “I         saw           the         man            with          the          binoculars”                                                                                                                      NP                                                                                                    PP                                                                              NP                                                  VP                                 S  In this case, “the binoculars” is modifying “the man”, indicating that the man has the  binoculars Co­Occurrence  Some words or phrases require something else to come with them  Arguments – expressions that must occur in a sentence with a specific expression  “she put the book on the table” o “the book” is an argument of “put”  o “on the table” is also an argument of “put” o “put” makes no sense by itself Phrase Structure  Every phrase has a head – the primary constituent of the phrase o The phrase type is named after the head (noun  phrases have  a noun as head, etc.)  Phrases can also have arguments that must co­occur with them o Also things that can co­occur in a phrase Noun Phrases  “Donuts are good for breakfast” – “donut” is a noun phrase  “The soggy old donut was a bad breakfast” – “the soggy old donut” is a noun phrase  In each case, “donut” is the head noun  A noun phrase is anything that could fulfill the role of “_____ was a bad breakfast” Verb Phrases  Intransitive verbs: “Sue fell” (stands alone)  Transitive verbs need an argument: “Sue hits the postman” o VP  V NP  Ditransitive verbs need 2 arguments: “Sue gave John the cat” o VP  V NP NP  With prepositional phrases: “Sue hit the postman with a bat” o VP  V NP PP  Phrase Structure Rules  NPs always need a noun  In English, NPs can also have a determiner, adjective and prepositional phrase  Rule: NP  (det)(adj) N (PP)  o () denotes optional elements  Rule: VP  V (NP) (PP)  Rule: S  NP VP  o Almost always needs at least one of each  Rule: PP  P NP Rules for Using Conjunctions  NP  NP Conj NP (“the boy and the girl”)  Or NP  Det N Conj N (“the [boy and girl]”)  VP  VP Conj VP (“I ran and grabbed him”) Rules for Adjectives and Adverbs  Adj  (Adv) Adj Recursion  The phrases can nest – called “recursion”  Allows for an infinite number of sentences Diagramming Sentences “The     man    and    woman   in      the     kitchen      own     a     bright     yellow     truck”             NP                                                      NP                                                NP                           NP                            PP                                        VP                                          NP                                                                           S Grammatical Relations  A node immediately dominates another node if it is directly above that other node  In English: o NPs immediately dominated by S o Direct Object: the NP is immediately dominated by verb phrase Deep Structure  Underlying forms that we don’t see  Undergo syntactic operations and become surface structures Syntactic Operations  Passivization: o An active sentence: Suzie hits John in the face o Passive version: John was hit in the face (by Suzie) Ellipsis  “I went to the store after the laundromat” o “after [I went to] the laundromat” o Removed the [I went to]  For both ellipsis and passivization, the deep structure is different from the surface  structure


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