Intro to Archaeology- Week 11 Notes
Intro to Archaeology- Week 11 Notes ANT 112
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by emilyecclestone on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 112 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Verity Whalen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
WEEK 11- ENVIRONMENT & THE SOCIAL HOME People & Environment in the Past One caveat… • Global climate change= real • Human induced That said… • Environments and global climate have fluctuated • People have altered environments • People have coped to change Coping with Environmental Change • Big Game Hunting--> Broad Spectrum Adaption Nasca Region (south coast of Peru) • Pottery focused on water theme--> animals, plants associated with water • Religious iconography o Agricultural motifs o Water o Blood trophy heads, violence -->fertility, death, rebirth Human-induced Deforestation • When trees are removed--> soil is unsettled--> when it rains a lot--> mudslides Instead of people living in smaller communities, people started living in larger groups/communities • Bigger and more complex • More constrained • People are eating more corn New places for ceremonies and sites/areas of worship • Large posts Nasca Trophy Heads • Important aspect of Nasca culture/society Coping with changing environments • Broader social networks • Ceremonialism and ancestor veneration • Constrained combat and sacrifice People Altering Environments • The Pristine Myth Houses, Households & Society The Home • Orient family, household, community • Social and economic blocks The Household perspective • Understanding society through lens of daily life o "bottom up" rather than "top down" • "bottom" of social ranking to understand the average daily life • Particularly useful for understanding… o Social change o Inequality o Colonialism o Trade o Identity & gender • Most productive approach is by looking at people's home(s) What do we study? • How should we look @ homes? o Mobile lifeway • Permanence= not goal o Urban politicized lifeway • Permanence= goal o Extended family/lies • Large family= goal o Nuclear family • Large size= not goal • Who built it? o Built by… • Inhabitants • Community • Specialists • Home form? o Round, square, or other? • Most are circular • Circular are difficult to maximize space (????) • Rectangular and square are good Symbolic approaches to home • Homes communicate who we are • Metaphorical association of home and cosmos o Built farms (home) express proper order of things • Socioeconomical status How does the home shape us? • Practice Theory o Structure o Agency o Reciprocal relationship between structure and agency • Mediate through built environment • Reshaping culture • Space syntax § Analysis of spatial configuration in built forms • Access analysis and social interaction The Archaeology of Home: Identity, Urbanism & the State Social Identity • Affiliation with groups based on perceived commonality o History and ancestry o Place o Occupation o Ritual practices o Gender o Age How do we get at Identity Archaeologically? • Mortuary practices o Tomb form o Grave goods • Things you are buried with o Body position • Laid flat, or fetal position? o Style (pottery, tools, etc) • Form • Iconography • __ o Ritual and religion • Architecture • Alters • Offerings and practices o The Home • Architecture • Cuisine • Activity areas o The body • Teeth (crookedness) • Breast implants
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