World History II Week 9 Notes
World History II Week 9 Notes HIST 1020
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meagan on Sunday March 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/27/16
Without Mercy: Total War War of Attrition 2 parties attack one another to get reaction/movement Traumatic experience Sir John French o Says naïve not to realize what would happen o Not the war they were expecting Rats and Fleas Experience in the trenches was horrifying Extremely loud, packed together Diaries, letters, images o Talking about rats and fleas o Different from what is expected Huge misery of the young volunteers Physical Impacts o Horrific injuries o Shells, tanks, gas and chemicals The birth of Chemical Warfare: Poison Gas Mustard and chlorine Second Battle of Ypres (1915) o Germans release 168 tons chlorine gas France 1 to use gas Germany most notorious for using it (invested lots) Problems o Can be blown by the wind (goes to people nearby = civilians) o People are constantly trying to catch up to the technology o Effects moist exposed tissue Severe burns, blindness o Primary areas affected Lungs, armpits, eyes Trench Boots and flooding Standard issued boots were for opposite terrain o Dry, marching o Reality = wat, muddy, squatting People’s feet starts to rot from never being dry / no antibiotics until 1943 o Amputation if get gangrene or trench foot Shelling to face or other body parts o Severe disfigurement and the start of early plastic surgery o Helen Smith Writer of Not so Quiet Drives emergency vehicle in war Psychological Effects of Industrialized War Shell shock/ War Neurosis o Modern day PTSD o Soldiers face with a lot of judgement and blame Not real men o Caused severe trembling Dancing condition Result from constant shelling Christmas Truce of 1914 Ypres, Belgium Last moment of innocence Occurred Christmas eve British and German soldier without permission from leader call truce o Celebrate o Decorate trees o Feast Show humanity of the people War of Illusions How much longer Battle of Somme (1916) o 1 million casualties only 25 square miles gained Battle of Passchendaele (1917) o Small territorial gain with tremendous casualties o Impact Normal city After: city completely obliterated Mobilizing a Nation for War Great Britain, Germany and France Propaganda o Used to help motivate people to stay in the war o What can those who aren’t fighting do to help o Use women and children in them Pull at heart strings o Encourage women to be ambulance drivers/nurses o Contribution to war effort Sewing clothes Bedding for soldiers Remarque (German, 1898) o Wrote All Quiet on the Western Front o Shows the disillusionment they felt as soldiers and the horrid journey o Soldiers wanted a strong German future and honor Women take jobs that men had before the war o Factories o Making bongs and explosives o Girl with the yellow hands / canaries Sulfur exposure Lead to infertility Celebrated by those who see them because of their (sacrifice) Purchase War Bonds Help generate funds to military operations Duty to purchase them o Seen as anti-citizen if didn’t purchase Guard against extravagances o Free up goods that can be sent to soldiers o Meatless and wheat less meals Save for soldiers Victory Gardens o Small plots or pots to grow own produce o Be producer also not just consumer o Do your bit in the war effort U.S. as Economic Engine of the War 1914 = $800 million 1916 = $3 billion 1917 = Entente powers own U.S. $2 billion In part entered the war to end the increasing amounts Sinking of the Lusitania by German U-bots in 1915 128 U.S. passengers A factor in shifting US thinking about the war President Wilson runs in 1916 o Wins with slogan promise to keep out of war Sinking of Sussex Wilson wants to use diplomacy to affect change o Response from Germany is to end diplomatic relations with U.S. Zimmerman Telegram 24 February 1917 Sent by German fore-minister to German minister in Mexico If side with Germany in war o Financial reward o Facilitate annexation of Southern U.S. (Texas, New Mexico, etc.) U.S. Enters War as “Associated Power” April 6, 1917 Wilson approaches to make it about big ideas o Matters long term War to end all wars o Last great war Spread values of Democracy/Capitalism o Globally Reform World Politics U.S. as template o Associated = embrace isolationism legacy War Vote o 375 to 50 (House) o 82 to 6 (Congress) Will the U.S. be ready for war? Not ready militarily need to grow military April 1917: 127,588 active U.S. Troops (AEF) May 1917: Selective Service Act (21-30 yrs.) o Requirement o Making of modern military Nov. 1918: 3,685,458 troops (+17X) General John Pershing Harlem Hellfighters Initial concerns about arming African-Americans Assigned to segregated units & menial labor 42,000 see action in Europe 369th Infantry Regiment: o 191 days in the trenches o Received more medals than any other U.S. unit Provide service even though denied basic rights of full citizenship Eastern Front 1000 miles long o Twice as long as Western No solid trench system Lower troop density o Have to be spread out War of Maneuver Trouble for the Russian Empire Huge Army + Poor Infrastructure o Need more materials Military Mutinies (1916-17) Acute Food Shortages + Riots Tzar Nicholas II Abdicates Throne (March 1917) Provisional Government = CHAOS REVOLUTION INEVITABLE o No support, unstable, issue on home-front The Russian/Bolshevik Revolution November 1917 Vladimir Lenin o Discontentment from soldiers and civilians o Committed to class struggle and global revolution of workers Marx/Engels = change via conflict Applied the language to war o WWI = Bourgeois War fought by peasants and workers o Only want bread, land, and peace Resonate across all people The Fourteen Points: Wilson’s response to Lenin January 1918 Lenin is a problem and Russia is supposed to be holding down the eastern front for the Entente powers Wilson trying to cast war as more than Proletariat vs. Bourgeois o Looking ahead; vision for the future; wants to make everyone happy Abolish secret treaties Disarmament to minimum level Decolonization/Self-Determination Return Alsace-Lorraine to France Dissolve Austro-Hungarian Empire Balkan states de-occupied League of Nations o Form a global body to secure collective security Russian Pulls out of WWI Treaty of Best-Litovsk, March 1918 o Signed with Germany o Territory lost to Germany Baltic States: Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia Finland Poland o Plunged into Civil War 2.8 – 6 million casualties More lives lost than in WWI o Germany can now move all troops to Western Front Last Window of Opportunity: Final German Push 1918 U.S. troops tip the balance toward the Allies o 10,000 fresh soldiers sent to France every day o 2nd Battle of Marne, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne German populace HUNGRY + LOW MORALE o Rationing= 1,000 calories/day o TIRED OF WAR Germany forced to face punishing armistice effective o November 11, 1918 o 11 month, day, hour 2 minute silence o Come together to reflect over war that has lost many resources, money, and people Architects of Peace at Versailles 1919 o Outside of Paris; only the winners met o The Big Four o David Lloyd George: Great Britain o Vittorio Orlando: Italy o Georges Clemenceau: France o Woodrow Wilson: U.S. o Cling to the reason they enter the war Treaty of Versailles 1919 o League of Nations Created o Irony=U.S. never joins o German disarmament o No submarines, naval aircraft, or tanks o Volunteer Army only (100,000 men) o Allow them to be defensive but not offensive o Germany to Pay Reparations o $13 billion (amount set later) o Loss of German Territory o Return Alsace-Lorraine to France o Redraw map of Europe Focus on decolonization and breaking up empires Article 231 o Part of the Treaty of Versailles o Known as the war guilt clause o Assigning moral responsibility for the war to Germany o Hitler uses this to mobilize troops later Uncertainty and Anxiety o Trying to process psychological and emotional impacts of the war o Jobs that were abandoned were taken over by women o Different for the US because less casualties and less time in the war o Lead to roaring 20s Stages of Economic Crisis Enthusiastic post-war spending! o Housing, Automobiles, Durable goods (appliances) o Money is flowing, returning soldiers encouraged to buy homes and live American dream Widespread investment in stock market o 1920s: 9 million Americans invest via borrowed money/credit o Civic duty to invest in country’s future Spending Peaks and Levels Off o Demand drops as people acquire things o Housing market slackens o Automobile demand plateaus o Glut of durable goods sitting in warehouses Large-scale worker lay-offs because no need o NO INCOME! NO SPENDING! o Market takes major hit Sell stocks to recoup money & repay loans Total value of stock market plummets Crash of October/November 1929 Official crisis Market crash Leads to Great Depression o $87 billion $30 billion o Unemployment o Looking for help/ hope o Suicide rates jumped A global Economic Crisis U.S. loans to pay reparations (Dawes Plan, 1924) Germany Reparations to France and Great Britain War debt to U.S. back to U.S. U.S. calls in foreign debt to stabilize economy = crisis when Market crash 1932: Height of German employment and important in Hitler’s rise to power Why Fascism? Operates in Crisis Situation: promises quick solutions o Fix it now Nationalistic & State-Centric o State can and will reach into every part of life o “The nation above all else” o State acts as supervisory force to reorganize society (private + public) Emphasize Role of Leader (Hitler, Mussolini) Support for Military as Stabilizing Force o Problem (disbarment policy in Treaty of Versailles) Anti-Communist: no class struggle (divisive) o Anything that highlights people are different = bad Family Stability=National Stability o Ideal of domesticity/”separate spheres” (reduces male unemployment) o Pro-natalist Policies Only certain people encouraged to have lots of babies Propaganda as Important Tool of the State o Powerful weapon of war o State machine creation Elitist + Exclusionary o Believe in “destiny” of superior group (Aryan race, Social Darwinism) o Primary captains for future of human race Why Hitler? Hitler = Austrian o Gives something to blame and has vision of themselves for future Blame Weimar Government: o Used world financial crisis to show ineptitude of republican institutions of Weimar Republic (1919-1933) Blame Entente Powers o Articulated deep anger about Article 231 of Versailles Treaty (“war guilt clause”) o Emotional hook, tap into resentment Blame Capitalism/Jews (Anti-Semitism): o blame Jews for financial crisis due to association with banking o claim Jews represent worst aspects of capitalist system o Vision of domination by master “Aryan” race o Lock racial agenda with economic one Believe in New Germany o “The German people” (not class terms) o New German Man and Woman can arise
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