crim102weekeleven.pdf CJC 102 -2
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
four main theories on test trait 1phrenoogy 2XYY warrior gene 3mesomorph crime body type 4branch of psychology that studies the mental processes of understand and manipulativeness cognitive theory social structure 1social theories search for crime in the immediate neighborhood 2 according to general strain theory which is not a source of strain presentation of neutral valued stimuli 3concentric zone model which one is the lowest transition zone 4 according to building respect is believed to reduce victimization code of the street by eli anderson social process 1attachment belief involvement in social bonding theory 2 labeling theory primary deviance is offender39s initial act of violating the law 3 excess of definitions favorable to crime differential association theory 4 self control theory argues that self control is either developed or not developed early in life around the ages of 810 conflict 112 1this contemporary conflict theory focuses on street crime left realism 2marx economic organization of society 3hagan39s power control theory argues that gender differences in creim are a function of which two factors economic power and parental control 4which feminist theory focuses on man39s exploitation of women radical feminism RESTORATIVE JUSTICE 1 restorative justice a what does it do i justice model that brings together the offender victim community and the CJS in responding to crime 1 talk it out ii offers offenders a learning experience that increases their sense of responsibility and makes them more accountable for their acts iii goal of going to jail is to rehabilitate the criminals which doesn t often work restorative justice is the an alternative to that b Main goals i repair harm to victim and community ii encourage dialogue among victims offender citizens iii transform role of community and government iv give offenders a second chance at a clean record 1 not everyone needs to be behind bars v makes community reintegration a practical option for offenders 114 DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES 1 developmental theories a focuses on human development i the relationship between the maturing individual and his or her changing environment and the social processes that relationship entails ii begins at birth b tend to be integrated theories 2 the developmental perspective a a perspective that draws attention to the fact that criminal behavior tends to follow a distinct pattern across a life cycle b Criminality o is relatively uncommon during childhood 0 tends to begin during late adolescence and early adulthood 0 tends to diminish and sometimes completely disappears by age 30 or 40 desistance 3 key terms a onset i criminal career begins b desistance i criminal career ends c duration i criminal career length d frequency i rate of criminal offenses 4 Life course theory a focuses on changes in criminality over the life course and the experiences and life events that may alter crime b AGE GRADED THEORY i sampson ii delinquency is more likely to occur when society bonds are weakened or broken iii family context shapes juvenile offending c Social ties turning points embedded in adulthood can alter the trajectory of criminal behavior i weak social ties higher likelihood of crime ii strong social tieslower likelihood of crime d key turning points that can alter offending i employment marriage children school ii these turning points can strengthen the social bond with society and change behavior 5 Propensity theory a d e argues that a stable unchanging feature characteristic or condition tha tmakes people crime prone throughout life course argues individuals with low self control are more likely to commit criminal and analogous behaviors characters of low self control i impulsive ii insensitive iii aggressive iv risk taking self control is either developed or not developed around ages 810 poor parenting creates low self control 6 Trajectory theory a suggests there are multiple pathways to a criminal career and there are different types within a population that follow distinct trajectories toward and away from a criminal career pathways to crime i criminal careers may have different pathways or trajectories violent nonviolent property drug related combinationvariety of acts a all of these personalities or pathways leading to these types of crimes should be analyzed ii three distinct pathways to delinquency exists 1 authority conflict pathway a begins at an early age with stubborn behavior b starts earliest c leads to defiance and disobedience and then to acts such as truancy staying out late ect 2 covert pathway a begins with minor behavior i shoplifting lying b leads to property damagevandalism and eventually moderate to serious delinquency burglary larceny auto theft 3 overt pathway a begins with minor aggression bullying b leads to aggressive acts fighting and then to violent assau s PFDN iii Dual Taxonomy Theory 1 two distinct types of offenders a life course LCP offenders i start crime at young age and continue throughout life ii Chronicoffenders b adolescent limited AL offenders i start during teenage years and stop offending iv What causes LCP offenders to start offending 1 early onset view that repeat offenders begin their criminal careers at young age 2 low intellectual development a neuropsychological deficits or temperamental problems i may be genetically linked from parents 3 ineffective parenting a very few offenders are considered LCP b most crime committed is by these people small group v what causes AL offenders 1 learned from mimicking LCP offenders a maturity gap 2 however as AL youth age more legitimate adult roles becoming available to them a thus delinquency decreases 3 probably doesn t have freedom from parents or money or love life 4 try to obtain lives of people who have those things a need to grow out of it 7 Policy Implications a office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency prevention OJJDP i targeted outreach program ii skills mastery and resistance training smart iii goal to set these people on a the correct developmental track for the future b OJJDP comprehensive strategy program i provides a framework for preventing delinquency intervening in early delinquent behavior and responding to serious violent and chronic offending c targeted outreach program i diverts at risk juveniles into activities intended to develop a sense of belonging competence usefulness and self control ii make them feel like they belong d SMART i increase protective factors and decrease risk factors for crime through the community the school and the individual ii multiple components 1 SMART kids after school program 2 SMART parents parental involvement program