Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 58 page Reader was uploaded by JM on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Reader belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 164 views.
Reviews for [NOTE]OB.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 11/07/15
Topic 1 personality Big 5 Personality Thursday, 20 June, 2013 7:55 PM Conscientiousness: Tendency to be dutiful and seek competence and achievement Be organized and live Not perform well in situations High according to routines and where quick decisions / spontaneity is schedules important Be responsible and Be too single-minded and obsessed achievement-focused with work (might suffocate subordinates with Take time to think constant demands and close supervision) through issues carefully Be overly concerned with little Have a strong sense of details and miss the big picture / living life duty / obligation fully Be self-disciplined / perseverant Be careful / meticulous in doing work Be more spontaneous Procrastinate or show poor follow- Low Be flexible / easy- through, failing to complete tasks going Be disorganized and scattered with Find rules and work regulations confining Make poor decisions (too quick to Have lower need to decide) seek achievements and hence Be content with a minimal amount more content with themselves of work, resulting in low achievements Agreeableness: Tendency to defer to others and seek social harmony Trust that people are good Be easily taken advantage by High by nature others Be candid / sincere in Compromise too much with communication others Be tender-hearted and Lack competitiveness compassionate Be too concerned with approval Find helping other fulfilling of others and not be able to make tough Be modest or objective decisions Avoid confrontations (even deny their own needs to get along) Be objective in making Be unsympathetic to needs of Low judgments (not influenced by others feelings / sympathy) Be seen as uncooperative and Willing to challenge others difficult to work with and be critical Be unwilling to compromise or Be more guarded / accept alternative views skeptical (less willing to trust others Be manipulative in or openly reveal everything) communication Be street-smart (shrewd resourcefulness to survive in real- world) Neuroticism: Tendency to easily experience unpleasant emotions Be more realistic about bad High situations (not be over-confident) Be easily stressed out by Worry more and feel anxious work or personal demands Be more emotionally reactive Be overly sensitive to (e.g. get angry / frustrated / sad / criticisms discouraged quickly) Behave awkwardly with Be self-conscious of how others others as they are overly self- view them conscious Experience panic / helplessness Behave unpredictably under stress (emotional) especially when under pressure Be generally calm and collected Be overly optimistic and Low Not feel anger or other negative not see potential problems emotions often or easily Not have a sense of Be secured with who they are urgency to solve issues Have a positive outlook More poised and confident under stress Openness (to experience) : Fascination with novelty and tendency to enjoy diversity Be more imaginative / Explore ideas but not be very High creative grounded in reality à seem idealistic / Be eager to learn / try new impractical experiences Take a long time to turn ideas Be open-minded to new / into action unusual ideas Be easily bored with Like to debate intellectual mundane / operational duties issues s Appreciate beauty in naturChallenge traditions / conventione and art Be more aware of their own emotions Be more practical / down- Not think creatively in doing Low to-earth work Enjoy working with facts Be resistant to change and numbers Not want to try new ways of Prefer dealing with people doing things or consider new ideas to and things (concrete things) rather improve work than ideas Prefer the security and stability in keeping to tradition and routines Be less self-aware of how they are feeling Extroversion: Tendency to seek stimulation and engage with external world (people, etc.) Enjoy the excitement of Spend more time than High crowds necessary on social activities at the Be sociable / make close workplace Get bored easily where social friends easily Be energetic / action- stimulation is lacking (e.g. working oriented / active behind a desk) Speak out, take charge, and direct the activities of others (assertive) Often experience positive emotions Get bored without high levels of stimulation (e.g. loud music) Be self-reflective (seeking Be inhibited and have Low stimulation from within rather than problems handling situations involving outside world) strangers Be more independent Not speak up in teams / workers meetings Be reserved (greater need Appear to lack energy / for privacy and personal time) exuberance Follow a leisurely pace of life Have difficulties in building (not thrill / excitement seeking) professional networks Dislike noise / commotions Topic 2 self efficacy Attitude, Self-Esteem & Self-Efficacy Thursday, 20 June, 2013 7:55 PM Cognitive Process Beliefs Things you believe about the object whether true or false Assessed feeling General evaluation of the object – like/dislike; feeling good/bad Behavioral What you are motivated to do/act Intentions Behaviour Actual response when presented with object Bandura’s Four Sources of Self-Efficacy – Improvement Experience in achieving success in similar areas of work Prior Experience through perseverant effort Create a series of successes for John Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained Behavior Models effort Learn from him/her on how to analyses and develop creative ideas. Verbal persuasion from others that one has the capabilities Persuasion from to master given activities Others Praising and acknowledge them in meetings Highlight John’s strengths and how he can utilize them to contribute usefully Positive interpretation / assessment of implications of Assessment of physical capabilities or emotional states (e.g. mood and stress Physical / tensions) Emotional State Share some stress management techniques with John. Locus Of Control : Affect self-efficacy External Success/failure attributed to factors beyond personal control such as luck, Locus fate and environment Internal Belief that one controls key events and consequences in one’s life such as Locus effort, contribute, energy Topic 3 motivation/needs Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Thursday, 20 June, 2013 7:55 PM Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs Self- Desire to be true to own nature and realize personal potential actualization - need for personal growth, self-fulfillment in areas of passion and individuality. Esteem Wanting self-esteem or respect of others - need for achievement, mastery, independence, recognition, importance, prestige, dignity, dominance. Social, Wanting to free from loneliness, rootlessness or rejection belongingnes s needs - desire for companionship, acceptance or being part of a group , love, social interaction and etc. Security Wanting to free from physical or emotional harm - free from fear, anxiety or chaos; need for stability, law and order, protection and etc. Physiological Refers to needs vital for survival such as need for food, water, needs warmth, shelter, sleep, sex, excretion and maintenance of other bodily functions. Intrinsic Motivation Sense of Feeling that you have an opportunity to accomplish something that Meaningfulnes matters in larger scheme of things or you are on a path that is s worth your time and energy Sense of Feeling that you are doing good high-quality work that meets or Competence exceeds your personal standards Sense of Feeling that your efforts are showing results or your work is on Progress track and moving in the right direction Sense of Feeling of being free to use own judgment when accomplishing Choice tasks McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Need for People with a strong need for achievement love challenging goals. achieveme They excel if there is a clear standard for performance. They generally nt strive to succeed. Need for People with a strong need for affiliation desire to build and maintain affiliation friendly & close interpersonal relationships. As such, they generally conform to others’ wishes and try to avoid any conflict or confrontation. Need for People with a strong need for power want power for personal gains power or interests (Personal Power) or want power to help others (Social Power) Job Redesign Job Increasing variety of tasks but at the same level of responsibility Enlargement (e.g A waiter take orders but at the same time they have to do cashiering and preparing of drinks.) Job Rotation Changing tasks to other on the same level of responsibility (e.g The host of the restaurant used to do the hosting is now doing cashiering.) Job Increasing responsibility and/or assigning level tasks Enrichment (e.g The cashiering has to do the hosting at the same time managing the new waiters) Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Job that involves the use of different skills and abilities of the employee (e.g The owner of the bakery does not only do the baking, she also required to do the accounting and manage the bakery. Thus the owner's skill variety is high.) Task Job requires completion of a 'whole' Identity (e.g The owner's task identity is high because she has to go through the whole process to get the final product.) Task Job has a substantial impact (gives an huge impact) on the Significance organisation or the lives of other people (e.g The baker has high significance as she acts as the food source in the society) Autonomy The job provides freedom (to plan or manage) and discretion to the individual in scheduling or determining the work procedures. (e.g The owner of the bakery has high autonomy as she able to determine her staff's work schedule) Feedback The work provides the individual clear information about their from Job performance. (e.g The owner has high feedback as she receives feedback from her customer to improve her customer service.) Topic 4 equity/vroom/reinforcement Equity Theory Vroom’s Expectancy Theory Reinforcement Theory Schedules of Reinforcement Thursday, 20 June, 2013 7:55 PM Equity Theory Fair-equitable rewards, not equal rewards (worth of my reward = worth of his reward) I believe I am over-rewarded -> feel guilty -> take actions to Positive reduce inequality inequity Ask for my rewards to be reduced or his rewards to be increased. Increase my input to match my rewards or ask him to reduce his input to match his rewards. Convince myself that perhaps my input is actually better than his (I might not know something that my boss knows). Change comparison other to someone who is equitable with me. I believe I am under-rewarded -> feel angry -> take actions to Negative reduce inequality. inequity Actions that can be taken are similar to dealing with positive inequity but in opposite direction (e.g.: ask for my rewards to be increased or his rewards to be decreased). Similarly, the comparison other can be changed to someone who is equitable with me. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory You’ll put in effort to do a task, if you believe that: Expectancy Instrumentality Valence You can achieve the desired You believe you’ll get As a result, you get level of performance if you higher rewards for reward and see whether put in the effort. performing better. you want or value it. Reinforcement Theory: Behaviour with unfavourable consequences disappears: Positive Presenting something that is pleasant. Reward Example: If you work hard in class, I will reward you an ‘A’ for daily grade. Negative Withdrawing something unpleasant. Reward Example: If you work hard in class, you do not need to do RJ (assuming you dislike doing RJ, I take it away as a reward). Punishmen Presenting something that is unpleasant. t Example: If you do not finish your work, you will be caned. Extinction Withdrawing something pleasant. Example: If you do not finish your work, you cannot play your favorite computer games today. Schedules of Reinforcement Schedule Description Examples Continuou Reinforcer follows every Prompt response to every feedback or s response suggestion, praise for every exemplary performance Fixed Reinforcer follows a fixed Piece-rated pay, fixed commission, Ratio number of responses productivity incentive Variable A varying number of Winning lottery, rewarded by boss because Ratio responses before reinforce occurs business has been good lately Fixed Fixed period of time before Hourly pay, monthly pay Interval reinforce occurs Variable Variable period of time Random praises on good performance Interval before reinforce occurs I don’t value the reward Low Valence Reward does not satisfy needs I don’t believe that putting in more effort will lead to Low desired level of performance in the task Expectancy Low self-efficacy Desired performance level is far beyond the capabilities of the person to achieve (e.g. for a normal person to run 100m under 10 seconds). Achieving desired performance level depends a lot on factors beyond the person’s control (e.g. teacher: all students must get ‘A’ for exam > meeting required performance level depends on students’ commitment to revise before exam, how easy the exam questions are, etc.). Performance standard is not clear (e.g. “you will get a 1- month bonus if you do well” - what does ‘do well’ mean?). I don’t believe that I will get higher rewards for Low performing better Instrumenta Performance is not considered in rewarding the person lity (e.g. if everyone in the team always gets the same daily grade regardless of whether one person contributed more the other). Link between performance levels and rewards is not clear to the person (e.g. for every 5 items you sell, you will get a $10: not explained to sales staff). Performance is not measured objectively or accurately (e.g. a supervisor decides on bonus for staff without any explicit criteria for decision). Lack of trust in evaluator to be fair (e.g. no matter how well I do, he will only give me a poor grade) or keep the promise of reward. Topic 5 Emotion DISSONANCE EL Components Emotional Dissonance Thursday, 20 June, 2013 7:55 PM EL Components Take time off work to reflect on how he feels Emotional Self-awareness: regarding current work environment (anger, fear, Reading one’s own emotions frustration & anxiety) and recognizing their impact Identify situations which trigger these emotions (i.e. when & why he feels this way) List how he tends to behave in these situations and how the staff tend to react on his behaviour. Recognize symptoms of emotions (e.g. feeling Emotional Self-control: flushed, sweaty palms, headache, faster heartbeat) and Keeping disruptive emotions and take himself out of the situation (e.g. taking a break before dealing with situation). impulses under control Identify at least 3 ways to respond to a situation, think about consequences of each and then choose best way to respond. Can delay making decisions / communicating with staff, to first think clearly and choose the best response to a situation. Talk to Jill on what can be realistically Transparency: achieved with current group of staff. Share with staff his rationale for changes (e.g. Displaying honesty and increase orders, reduce complaints) as well as why this integrity to self (i.e. staying true is very important to him (e.g. reputation that took him many years to build is at stake). to one’s emotions but Share with staff which situations are not addressing them in a acceptable to him (e.g. what he would consider slow or constructive way) unmotivated behaviour) and what staff can do to manage these situations when he points them out. Control / prevent situations that trigger his negative emotions (i.e. situations identified under Emotional Self-awareness). Reflect on differences between Original Cupcake and other companies why using same Adaptability: strategies might not work. Flexibility in adapting to Identify what are his ‘must-haves’ for the changing situations or staff (e.g. coming in at 2am) and what he can be flexible overcoming obstacles with (e.g. going on leave). Helps to avoid anger / frustration in pushing through changes that might not work or from conflict with staff. Reflect on changes he has made successfully Optimism: (e.g. staff coming in to work at 2am, increased production by 20%, no customer complaints or late Seeing the upside in events orders). See resistance from staff as opportunity to get to know them better in the process of working out the differences. Helps to minimize his anxiety / anger / frustration. Practise active listening and attending Empathy: techniques. Imagine the situation from other person’s Seeing others’ emotions, perspective before approaching them - How much understanding their information/resources do they have compared to you; perspective and taking active what might be pressures on them that might not be interest in their concerns. pressures on you, etc. Identify who are opinion leaders among staff Organizational Awareness: (e.g. someone must be organizing the staff to approach Reading the currents, decision Jill) can focus on influencing them first. networks, and politics at the Observe how staff work and interact with organizational level each other (family environment) can use same approach when interacting with staff. Share with staff what are his plans to improve Inspirational Leadership: the processes and how they will benefit Original Guiding and motivating with a Cupcake / staff (especially since the staff built the compelling vision company up with Jill). Share his personal experiences in other bakeries / philosophy at work > be a role-model since he has built his reputation in the industry also help them see that he knows his stuff. Use proper techniques to provide feedback Developing Others: Bolstering to staff instead of barking orders and losing temper at staff. others’ abilities through feedback and guidance Coach staff on what he expects from them. Reduces conflicts over work expectation or staff not being able to meet his expectations. Seek to first understand the perspective of Conflict Management: the staff (e.g. why they need to go on leave) - Empathy. Resolve disagreements Look for what you can be flexible about and give in to staff in return for their commitment - Adaptability. Be clear about what are important to you and expectations of the staff - Transparency Emotional Dissonance Emotional Labour: Effort and control needed to express expected emotions. In an organization, staff might be expected to display certain emotions during interpersonal transactions. Difficult to display expected emotions accurately and hide true emotions Responses to Dissatisfaction: Exit -Leaving the situation -Quitting, transferring Voice -Changing the situation -Problem solving, complaining Loyalt -Patiently waiting for the situation y to improve Negle -Reducing work effort/quality ct -Increasing absenteeism Stress: -2 Types of stress: 1)Eustress - stress from positive emotions/event (e.g marriage, promotion) 2)Distress - stress from negative emotions/event (e.g death, retrenchment) -Consequences of Distress: Physiologi Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, headaches cal Behavioral Poor work performance/decisions, accidents, absenteeism, aggression Psychologi Dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue. cal Topic 6 GOOD TEAM Building an Effective Team Stages Of Team Development Pros and Cons of Working in Teams Belbin’s Team Roles Monday, 15 July, 2013 7:55 PM Stages Of Team Development Stage 1 : Uncertainty Members think of Forming themselves as part Discover team’s purpose, structure and of the team leadership as well as what they are expected to do and how they are expected to behave Get to know & assess each other Evaluate the benefit of being part of the team To reduce uncertainty: Clarify team’s purpose and goal expectations Bring team together to work on common tasks - opportunities for interaction among members Stage 2: Conflict Major conflicts are Storming resolved and there Resist the constraints imposed on their is a relatively clear individuality (E.g. rules, etc.) hierarchy of Compete for team roles & leadership leadership Voice their dissatisfaction with others Try to influence team to accept their goals / ideas To manage conflicts: Agree on process to resolve conflicts Allow conflicts to be raised for discussion Focus on solving the conflict, rather than assigning blame Clarify members’ level of authority and areas of responsibility Facilitate discussions among members to refine processes and rules Develop capacity to compensate for individual weaknesses Create opportunities for casual interaction among members to strengthen cohesion Stage 3: Agreements Members accept Norming common set of With structural disagreements resolved, expectations on members now focus on how they want to work and how to do things function as a team Team becomes more cohesive as feelings of camaraderie and shared responsibility increase Stage 4: Achievements Goals have been Performing completed Since structure, leadership and relationship issues have been resolved, members now focus on achieving their goals There is efficient coordination of work, clarity of roles as well as high levels of cooperation and trust Stage 5: Team disbands when there is little value in keeping team Adjourning Building an Effective Team (3 types): 1. Right People Right Conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness all Personality relate to team performance Right Abilities Technical expertise as well as problem-solving / decision-making and interpersonal skills are needed Right Attitude Members want to be part of the team and value teamwork Right Size Large enough to supply needed competencies/manpower but small enough for easy coordination and meaningful involvement of all members (popular rule: 5 -7 people) Right Mix Homogeneity (members are alike - personality, experience, etc.) is good for bonding but heterogeneity is needed for teams attempting unfamiliar / innovative tasks 1. Clear Processes Common Every member agrees on the purpose of the team and commits Purpose towards achieving the purpose Clear Work procedures, goals and standards are jointly agreed to by Expectations members Clear Roles Members are aware of their roles and accept allocation of roles within the team (e.g. Belbin’s team roles) Clear Rules What are acceptable/non-acceptable behaviours are clear Clear Control Members actively manage unproductive behaviours (e.g. Processes destructive conflicts) 1. Good Relationships Good Members listen effectively and communicate openly Communication Identification- Members know and understand each other so well that they based Trust are willing to allow another member to decide/act on their behalf. The major factors that influence trust are: Familiarity > know each other through contact in the past Shared experience > experienced many of the same things together (e.g. suffered through crises together) Reciprocal disclosure > have shared personal information with each other > closer interpersonal relationship Strong Members feel as part of the team and identify themselves with Cohesiveness the team. See next slide what influences cohesion Conflict: The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed by another party. Not all conflicts are bad. Constructive when we focus our discussions on the issues while maintaining conflict respectfulness for other people having their own points of view - enables organizations to make better decisions and enables people to build stronger relationships. Destructive when we focus on the opposing person (e.g. his/her characteristics (relationship) and competence) rather than the issues as the source of conflict - conflict can result in delay in completion of work, low morale, high turnover, etc. Many conflicts within teams arise from criticisms. Constructive criticism leads to constructive conflicts and vice versa. You can give constructive criticism by: • Focusing on performance/problem, not on the recipient • Being specific (i.e. not making sweeping statements) • Being timely (i.e. providing criticism as soon as possible after poor performance) • Offering specific useful suggestions for improvement • Being considerate (i.e. protecting the recipient’s self-esteem) Team Cohesion A team becomes more cohesive as a result of: Frequent Interaction ==> meet regularly Homogeneity > similarity-attraction effect ==> common interest Smaller team size > easier to agree on goals and coordinate activities Somewhat difficult entry > more elite the team, the more prestige it confers, the more people value their membership in the team Past successes > people like to identify themselves with successful teams rather than one with a string of failures External competition and challenge > people value their membership if it helps them overcome threats Supportive Organizational and Team environment Adequate Support from the organization such as timely information, proper Resources equipment, senior management support for work activities and cooperation from other teams Effective Facilitating decision-making and how team fits together to integrate Leadership individual skills Team-based Need to consider team-based appraisal and tying part of an Rewards individual’s rewards to team’s overall achievements Working in Teams Compared with individuals working alone Advantages Disadvantages Make better Working individually might be decisions better/faster for simple tasks Make better Takes time and resources to products/services due to coordinate work as well as manage more knowledge/expertise unproductive behaviors such as social loafing Increase and conflicts employee engagement When to Choose to Work in Teams? Work is complex and require different perspectives Need to achieve something bigger than just aggregate of the goals for individuals Members will be involved in interdependent task Social Loafing: Describes tendency of people to put in less effort when working in a team than working alone Most likely to occur when individual output is difficult to identify or team members are not evaluated individually To minimize social loafing: Make each member’s contribution more noticeable by reducing the size of team or evaluating individual performance too. Make jobs interesting > improve intrinsic motivation of people to work Build team cohesion > less likely to ignore work and burden others Common Sources of Conflict in Teams Members have personal goals that conflict with each other (e.g. one member wants to get work done as fast as possible so that he can go home but another might want to spend more time on the work so that she can get a promotion for work well-done) à highlights the importance of common purpose and clear expectations. Roles responsibilities, behaviour rules and processes on how to get work done are not clear. Members do not trust each other > grudges, “an eye for an eye” Competition for limited resources (e.g. when you share resources such as money, space, equipment and staff, everyone wants more as they think their work requires more resources than others). Topic 7 NEGOTIATION Monday, 15 July, 2013 7:55 PM Negotiation A process through which two/more parties move from their initially divergent position to a point where agreement is reached. Principles of negotiation : 1. Separate people Understand differences in perception from problem Deal with emotions Listen actively 1. Focus on interest Position: Something you have decided upon , not position Interest : what caused you to decide so Keep clear focus on interest, but open to different proposals and positions 1. Invent options Look for items that are of low cost to you and for mutual gains. high benefit to them Separate invention process from the evaluation stage 1. Insist on Agree which criteria are best - legitimate and objective criteria practical Create fair procedure for resolving dispute ZOPA - Zone Of Possible Agreement It is the range or area in which an agreement is satisfactory to both parties involved in the negotiation process. Often referred to as the "Contracting Zone". ZOPA or the Contracting Zone is essentially the range between each parties real base or bottom lines, and is the overlap area in the low and high range that each party is willing to pay or find acceptable in a negotiation. Reservation point--->minimum point you can Opening point ----> the best price 17/8/2014 3:07 PM - Screen Clipping BATNA - Best Alternative To Negotiated Agreement standard against which any proposed agreement should be measured - negotiated agreement should be better than BATNA: Helps you decide when to break off negotiation. The better your BATNA, the greater your bargaining power. Developing BATNA : Invent list of actions to take if no agreement is reached; Improve some of the more promising ideas and convert them into practical alternatives; and Select, tentatively, the one alternative that seems best based on: Cost Practicality Effectiveness Reservation point - walkaway price, the price above which she definitely will not pay Opening point the price that would give her the best deal as a buyer Target point the price that wanted to achieve during after the negotiation Topic 8 PERCEPTUAL Common Perceptual Errors Monday, 15 July, 2013 7:55 PM Common Perceptual Errors Stereotype The process of assigning traits to people based Girl VS Boy, Chinese on their membership in a social category. VS indian Halo Effect The extension of one particular positive trait She's kind so she'll to influence the total judgment of that person kind to everyone Horn Effect The extension of one particular negative She's lazy so she'll not trait to influence the total judgment of that do house chores person. Recency Effect A perceptual error in which the most recent Recently she went to information dominates one's perception of jail so she's a bad girl others. Primacy Effect Our tendency to quickly form an opinion of He looked decent so people based on the first information we receive he's a good person about them. IMPRESSION Similar-to-me The perceiver tends to give more favorable She danced well same Effect evaluations to people who are similar to as me so she'll get themselves in terms of background or same grade as me attitudes. Self-serving Bias A perceptual error whereby people tend to I score well bcos I did attribute their favorable outcomes to internal study. I didn't score factors and their failures to external factors well bcos the faci bias Fundamental The tendency to see the person rather than the She fail her science is Attribution Error situation as the main cause of that person’s not the paper is hard, behavior. is bcos she's stupid Self-fulfilling This occurs when our expectations about I expect her to study Prophecy another person cause that person to act in a way that is consistent with those expectations. hard Topic 9 judgement Stakeholder Framing Effect Solution-focused problems Wednesday, August 22, 2012 7:55 PM Stakeholder Framing Effect: To influences the decisions makers. Stakeholders with interest in the issue will frame the situation such that these decision makers see the problem from the stakeholders’ perspective rather their own. Attribute A tendency to evaluate a characteristic more positively when it is Framing presented in positive terms (e.g. 60% fat free) than when it is presented in Effect negative terms (e.g. 40% fat).) Goal Framing A tendency for people to act when presented with the disadvantages of Effect not taking that action, rather than when the advantages of taking the action. Solution-Focused Problems : Decision makers define a problem with the intended solution being part of the suggested statement. Anchoring People are strongly influenced by the first set of information Heuristics received that they ignore subsequent new information Availability The tendency to recall easily available information in relating Heuristics to an object or event. Representati The tendency to relate one object or event to another resembled ve Heuristics object or event. Common Decision-Making Pitfalls – Part 2 Name of Pitfall Description Representativeness Heuristics : Tendency to form associations between two things based on past experiences or assumptions and then applying this association to make decisions. Attribute Framing Tendency for people to evaluate the same attribute (i.e. a quality or characteristic) more positively when you describe it in positive words than when you describe it in negative words. Applicable when evaluating/selling a product or an idea. Goal Framing Tendency for people to be more strongly persuaded when you tell them the negative consequences of a behaviour compared to when you tell them the positive consequences of doing something. Applicable when persuading people to change behaviour. Topic 10 Change Management in a Nutshell Common Sources of Resistance Strategies to Weaken Resistance EVLN - UNDONE Wednesday, August 22, 2012 7:55 PM Change Management in a Nutshell Common Sources of Resistance: Direct Costs Losing something of value after “We are seniors. Now, we become change - apprentices (and to these kids)?” income, status, control of Loss of status resources, etc. Loss of Face Accepting change acknowledges “We helped Mrs Lim build up this own salon business. Left most decisions (Saving Face) to us, she thinks she knows imperfections or past wrongdoing better !” Issue with Charlene acting as if she knows better Fear of the Concern about being unable to “What happens if the treatments I Unknown adjust or provide are phased out? I don’t know if I can learn to use all these risk of uncertainty complicated machines?” Anxiety over ability to cope Uncertainty of change Breaking Past practices/habits are valued Routine due to comfort or lower effort needed Incongruent Current norms are contrary to “Here, we follow one important rule Team desired … Charlene does not seem to follow this” Dynamics change Charlene’s behaviour not congruent with norms Incongruent Career, reward, power, communication Organization al Systems systems reinforce status quo Strategies to Weaken Resistance: Highest priority and first strategy for change Communicati Reduces uncertainty (fear of unknown) on Problems -- time consuming and costly Provides new knowledge/skills Includes coaching and other forms of learning Learning helps break old routines and adopt new roles Problems -- potentially time consuming and costly Employees participate in change process Involvement Helps saving face and reducing fear of unknown Includes task forces, future search events Problems: Time-consuming may lead to poor decisions or conflict if staff interests are not compatible with organizations. When communication, learning, and involvement are Stress not enough to minimise stress Management Potential benefits: More motivation to change Less fear of unknown Fewer direct costs Problems -- time-consuming, expensive, doesn’t help everyone Influence by exchange -- reduces direct costs Negotiation May be necessary when people clearly lose something and won’t otherwise support change Problems Expensive Gains compliance, not commitment When all else fails Coercion Assertive influence Radical form of “unlearning” Problems Reduces trust May create more subtle resistance Encourage politics to protect job T opic 11 Sunday, 17 August 2014 10:58 AM Constructive conflict: Improves the performance of an organisation (e.g focus on task & issues, respectful of conflicting parties) Destructive conflict: Undermines/deteriorate the performance of an organisation (e.g focus on personal attributes, disrespectful of conflicting parties) Sources of Organizational Conflict Incompatible Disagreements over what to be accomplished and Goals how to be accomplished Role Ambiguity Uncertainty of self's role which leads to chances of interfering goals and activities Differences Differences in motivation, aspiration, values, Between Members personalities and working & thinking styles Resource Direct/indirect and actual/perceived competition Scarcity/Constrain over resource ts (e.g time, budget, space & power) Communication Miscommunication, distorted interpretation which Problems leads to unnecessary disagreements Interdependence When someone is too dependent on another for resource/information which leads to conflict Conflict Handling Styles 23/8/2014 10:17 PM - Screen Clipping Forcing When one is only concerned about own interest (High assertiveness and Low cooperation) Yielding When one is only concerned about other's interest (Low assertiveness and High cooperation) Problem- When is only concerned about own & other's Solving interest (High assertiveness and High cooperation) Avoiding When one is not concerned about own or other's interest (Low assertiveness and Low cooperation) Topic 12 Sources of Power Techniques Contingencies of Power Organisational Politics - UNDONE Wednesday, August 22, 2012 7:55 PM Sources of Power Legitimate Derived from one’s position in organization; accepted authority of one’s Power position Reward Derived from one’s capacity to give valued rewards (positive reinforcement) Power or remove sanctions (negative reinforcement) Coercive Derived from one’s capacity to administer punishment or remove Power benefits (extinction) Expert Power Derived from one’s recognized superior skills, knowledge or abilities in a certain area Referent Derived from how much one is admired / liked by others; others identify Power with / relate to this individual Influence Techniques Rational Using logical arguments and facts to persuade Expert Persuasion Tell staff that other workers similarly want the causes of the breakdowns to be identified and resolved quickly as it is affecting their work (delays). Exchange Promising some benefits upon complying with request Reward Promise staff time-off / extra days of holidays / one-time off bonus if they document problems that they found during breakdowns and repairs that they made. Pressuring Seeking compliance through warning, threat, repeated Coercive demands or intimidation Legitimating Highlighting one’s formal authority to make request OR Legitimate stressing that request is consistent with organizational policies and practices Promise staff time-off / extra days of holidays / one-time off bonus if they document problems that they found during breakdowns and repairs that they made. Personal Appeal Appealing to feelings of loyalty, friendship OR seek Referent compliance as personal favour. “Please do it for my sake; as a favour to me.” Inspirational Arousing enthusiasm by appealing to one’s values, hopes, Referent needs or aspirations Appeal “Let’s work together to make our workplace productive so that we can all be proud of our achievements and celebrate our success together.” Ingratiation Getting one in a good mood OR getting them to relate to and Referent like you OR using flattery and praise before making request • Spend time with staff > allow them to get to know her and her visions for the bakery > more inclined to support her and do documentation. • Tell staff that her uncle could not have survived in business for 30 years without their wonderful support and she looks forward to the same. Consultation Asking one to participate in decision-making or planning Legitimate change to increase support Highlight the delays caused by the breakdowns and ask the maintenance team to propose suggestions and work with her to develop solutions Coalition- Enlisting support of others or telling targeted person about Any Building support you already have Tell staff that other workers similarly want the causes of the breakdowns to be identified and resolved quickly as it is affecting their work (delays). Contingencies of Power Substitutabili availability of alternatives. Power is strongest when one has a monopoly ty over a valued resource, tasks or knowledge. Centrality degree and nature of interdependence between power holder and others (i.e. number of people affected, speed at which others are affected). • High centrality: most people adversely affected by your absence and they would be affected quickly. Discretion freedom to make decisions without referring to specific rule or receiving permission from someone else. Visibility known to others; only when a person’s source of power is visible will it be meaningful. Topic 13 Traits theories Behavioural theories Contingency theories (Leaders Behaviour, Contingencies) Path-Goal Theory Wednesday, August 22, 2012 7:55 PM Traits theories There are some leadership traits that appear consistently over different studies and which we should consider developing in order to be a good leader: • Intelligence; • Self-confidence; • Determination; • Integrity • Sociability These traits can be developed through self-reflection, conscious practice and leadership training. Application in class: Read up the pre-class materials and do some research beforehand ( Improves self-confidence and intelligence) Set good example by completing your tasks on time, be punctual for all meetings, and sacrifice your lunch break if you need to, to meet the deliverables (demonstrates determination) Communicate expectations of team performance/experience, set clear goals in Meeting 1 on the directions of your day’s presentation , and gets along well with teammates (exhibits determination and sociability) Argue for team’s ideas but willing to take responsibility for mistakes and areas for improvements (shows intelligence, determination and integrity) Behavioural Theory: Leaders cannot be overly task-oriented or overly people-oriented only. Main focus of task-oriented leaders are to organize work, clarify roles and procedures as well as keep work under control in order to achieve results. People-oriented leaders focus on achieving results through encouraging, observing, listening, coaching and mentoring. Being high on both would be the most effective leadership style. Application in class: Be more task-oriented Set clear timelines to come back from break and submit individual work (e.g. submitting points for presentation slides during Study Period 2) Clarify roles (e.g. leader, scribe, etc.) Communicate expectations. Be more people-oriented Help team mates who have difficulties understanding problem statement or worksheet (e.g. take time to explain or provide materials to read) Encouraging quiet members to share their ideas by asking them for their views or appreciating the ideas that they share. Take time to listen to their problems and issues (which prevents them from contributing effectively in the team or class) Path-Goal Theory: (a) Leaders Behaviour Category of Description of Leader Behaviours Leader Behaviour Clarifying employees' performance goals Directive providing guidance on how employees can complete tasks clarifying performance standards and expectations use of positive and negative rewards contingent on performance Provide psychological support for employees Supportive shows concern for employees helps employees to cope with stressful situations Facilitating subordinate involvement in decisions beyond their normal work activities Participative encouraging the sharing of minority opinions asks for suggestions involves employees in decision-making Setting challenging goals Achievement- emphasizing excellence oriented demonstrating confidence in employees' abilities Path-Goal Theory: (b) Contingencies - Employee (Follower) Contingencies, Environmental Contingencies Employee Skills and Experience (Follower) Level of skills and experience of employees. Employees with lower skills and experience may require more guidance. Contingencies Locus of Control Internal locus of control: Employees believe that they have control over their work. External locus of control: Employees believe that their performance is more due to luck and fate Employee Directiv Supporti Participati Achievement-oriented (Follower) e ve ve Contingencies Skill/Experience Low Low High High Locus of Control External External Internal Internal Environmen Task Structure: tal Contingenci The nature of the task: routine, non-routine, simple or complex. es Team Dynamics: The working styles and relationships of team members: cohesive, non-cohesive, performance-oriented, negative norms. Environmental Directive Supportive Participative Contingencies Task Structure Non - Routine Routine Non-Routine Team Dynamics Negative Low Positive Norms Norms Cohesion Topic 14 Organizational Structures (Work specialization, Departmentalization, Chain of command, Centralization, Formalization) Contingency Factors(External environment, Technology, Strategy) Proposed Organisational Structure (For Curriculum Development, For Administration) Wednesday, August 22, 2012 7:57 PM ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ELEMENTS 1 Work specialization: The degree to which activities in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. Work speciali
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'