Period, Style, and Form Week 11 Notes - 19th Century Painting and Pre-Raphaelite/Art Nouveau
Period, Style, and Form Week 11 Notes - 19th Century Painting and Pre-Raphaelite/Art Nouveau THFM 4600
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh Schneider on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to THFM 4600 at Bowling Green State University taught by Margaret McCubbin in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Period, Style, and Form in Theatre at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
Period, Style and Form – Week 11 Monday: Nineteenth Century Painting Painting o The Neoclassical in painting and sculpture is later than architecture Distinctive qualities include smoothness of form and clarity of outline The Salon o Jacques David Dominated this exhibition with the painting The Oath of the Horatii This work was bought by the King Developed a style to express moral and philosophical purpose Extremely severe Often appeared cold with hard edges Adherent of both the Revolution and Napoleon’s Empire Much of his work glorified both Refounded the Royal Academy of Painting after it had dissolved during the Revolution o Elizabeth Vigee Lebrun Internationally famous portrait painter Managed to produce about 800 paintings in her career Was the daughter of an artist Supported her mom and brother with her painting at age 15 Very interested in the personalities of the people she painted o Angelica Kauffman Concentrated her work in the field of history painting, which was male dominated Became a leading painter in London and one of the founding members of the Royal Academy Designed decorative inset pieces to be used in homes Created over 500 paintings throughout her career o JeanAuguste Dominique Ingres A pupil of David Developed a highly idiosyncratic style with a lot of romantic fantasy Believed that all the expressive power of painting resides in drawing Tried for a perfect work of art Allowed extreme distortions in order to achieve his goal The Grand Odalisque Shows distortion of anatomy to achieve sensuous rhythmic quality o Pierre Prud’hon Accepted as a Neoclassicist but his work came more from da Vinci and his sfumato style Used bitumen pigments which gave a wonderful depth to shadows but also cracked and peeled over time o AnneLouis Girodet Painted romantic subjects and in a romantic style despite being an avid Neoclassicist Constantly tried to change his paintings and make them Neoclassical o Eugene Delacroix Considered himself part of the classical tradition Strongly believed in the unity of subject, meaning, and manner and the integration of the elements Firmly believed in a certain amount of vagueness Very interested in color theory Created over 12,000 works in his lifetime o Theodore Gericault Earlier than Delacroix and was much admired by him Chose a deliberate lack of clarity and concentrated on a vigorous, almost Baroque style that is a characteristic of high romanticism The Raft of the Medusa Most famous (or infamous) work Has a nightmarish quality Had the ability to see the mentally ill as fellow human beings One of the noblest outcomes of the Romantic movement o Francisco Goya The first painter to use his art to mirror the evils of his time Was deaf from the age of 46 Last works are nightmarish to the extreme Created a true world of nightmares o John Henry Fuseli Work has the true dark Gothic quality of the time Reminds one of Dracula and Frankenstein, which are being developed at this time o William Blake Better known for poetry than painting Had an exclusive concern with the world of the spirit His subject matter is what most sets him apart o Honore Daumier Known as a political cartoonist Produced over 4,000 lithographs Primary concern was not for the surface of reality but the emotional meaning behind it Had a passion for condemning social injustices o John Constable Devoted himself to the humblest aspects of the English countryside Studied the luminosity of the sky and the shimmer of water Wanted to see the scene as the eye sees it Had a great effect on Delacroix in his use of almost pure colors o William Turner His favorite works to paint were of nature at its most turbulent and uncontrolled Later works were primarily concerned with the action of elemental forces combining into one dynamic force Sculpture o Less adventurous than either painting or architecture when trying to follow the Neoclassical ideal o Mechanical Roman copies of Greek originals were praised as the highest form of art Desire for exact duplication of reality threatened to turn sculpture into a mechanical art o Sculptors Antoine Houdon The most distinguished of the portraitists o The finest French sculpture of the 18 century Developed a characteristic poise which gives a strong feeling of the person as an individual Canova Had a great reverence for Greek originals o His works present the same striving for idealized beauty Augustus SaintGaudens Included unusual elements of personality and the environment in his public sculptures Had a sense of immediacy which is suggestive of the Impressionists o He is not grouped with them Francois Rude Created a masterpiece in the NeoBaroque Romantic style o Part of the Arc de Triomphe JeanBaptiste Charpeaux Created a group for the façade of the Paris Opera Realism o Believed that both Neoclassicists and Romantics were wrong about history having artistic importance o Not opposed to rendering any contemporary event where the artist hadn’t been involved o Tended to be Republicans who were dedicated to founding a new social order based on justice for the working class o Believed in the purity of everyday fact over imaginative fancy o Artists Corot Didn’t begin the study of painting until age 26 Primary concern was for simplicity of form which he explored mainly in landscapes During his time his portraits and figure studies were ignored but today they are his most famous o Both landscapes and portraits are important to contemporary painting Courbet The selfdeclared leader of the Realist movement o It was his stand in the 1840s that pushed the idea that painters should portray everyday life There is a new sense of immediacy combined with a social message Showed common people without sentiment or condescension Before all else he was a painter with a rich handle of paint Winslow Homer An American who followed the Realist path Developed a strong individual style as a marine painter Eventually became an Impressionist o Sculpture Rodin Some consider him an Impressionist, others a postImpressionist or a Romantic realist Was not fascinated with the commonplace Exclusively concerned with the human figure, particularly physical and/or emotional stress Subjects and poses were not idealized Wednesday: PreRaphaelite to Art Nouveau PreRaphaelite o Brotherhood qualified by four main aspects A revolt against the times An adulation of the middle ages Noble aesthetic aspirations A morbid sentimentality with historical delusions, faulty archeology and debilitating literary preoccupations o Traits It was a part of the Gothic revival with repressed eroticism and an unrealistic urge to reform the evils of society Arose from their horror of the society that came from the Industrial Revolution The first to question whether man’s spirit could flourish in a world corrupted by commerce They were contemporaries of the older Impressionists but had nothing in common with them Influenced other artists with their social consciousness and with some aspects of their style Rejected the ideals of the academic tradition of Raphael and his followers o Painting is characterized by bright color, sharply defined outlines, and close attention to detail o Artists Dante Gabriel Rossetti The original leader of the movement The most personal and emotional interpreter of the ideal Works are dominated by one ideal woman based on William Morris’ wife John Everett Millais Technically the best and least pretentious of the artists of this group Later changed his style to become a great popular success Eventually became the president of the Royal Academy William Holman Hunt Remained faithful to the technical aspects of the PreRaphaelite style all his life Ford Maddox Brown Took the preRaphaelite styles and used them to paint moralizing themes from modern life Edward BurneJones Part of the second wave of PreRaphaelites Worked in many different medias, including tapestries and stained glass o Flat qualities of these mediums affected his painting style Preferred to work on long panels Arthur Mackmurdo The earliest English creator of the Art Nouveau style Trained C.A. Voysey and was associated with William Morris William Morris Designed patterns for wallpaper and fabric with the first original system of ornament since the Rococo o This stylistic motif carries over into Art Nouveau o Had a strong influence on a number of styles The Red House o Commissioned and designed by Morris and Philip Webb o Was simpler and more craftsmanly than the normal Victorian design but filled with “arty clutter” o Arts and Crafts style Didn’t disappear with Art Nouveau Was a dominant style in Great Britain until the 1920s and 30s Most wellknown aspects of the American version are the “Mission Style” and the furniture designs of Stickley Art Nouveau o 18901900 was the height of this style o Took its name from a gallery in Paris o Goal was to get rid of the historicizing tradition of academic art and the division between the arts Wanted to avoid the endless repetitions of earlier styles and subject matter o Stress was on the decorative values of motifs and linear patterns Two aspects to the value of the line The flowing, twisting line which is commonly associated with Art Nouveau A geometric, angular style that is more architectural than organic o Did not need to tell a story or produce a moral Objects were valid in themselves o Strong ties to the Arts and Crafts Movement o Artists Edward Gordon Craig Showed the influence in his woodcuts James McNeil Whistler A friend of many PreRaphaelites Designed The Peacock Room Paintings more commonly associated with the Impressionists ToulouseLautrec Produced some posters that were strongly Art Nouveau but work is closer to Post Impressionism Aubrey Beardsley One of the most influential artists of the 1890s and one of the most representative of the Art Nouveau movement Chose to do illustration because it required a shorter working time Removed all naturalistic forms and turned them into two dimensional Showed explicit eroticism in much of his work Alphonse Mucha Well known because of the popularity of his poster designs Had the partronage of Sarah Bernhardt and incorporated her image into many of his designs Gustav Klimt Specialized in using gold in his paintings Developed his work into flat patterns o The earliest development of the style was in Great Britain Was ultimately rejected but found its fullest expression in England Arthur Lazenby Liberty Was not an artist but had a great deal to do with Art Nouveau in Great Britain Started his own firm in 1875 and both patronized and encouraged Art Nouveau artists o Jewelry/Glass/Etc. Designers Rene Lalique o Had a natural understanding of his materials o One of his patrons was Sarah Bernhardt Galle and the Daum Brothers Created shapes with an organic biomorphic quality Created glass pieces with opalescent effects Louis Tiffany Created favrile (iridescent) glass o Made by exposing hot glass to metallic fumes and oxides o Architecture/Interior Design Influenced by Japanese architecture Emphasis was on designing all the elements of an interior to produce a harmonious unity this approach influenced the work of Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, who were two of the most important architects in the 20 century Architects C.A. Vorsey o Started out as an interior designer and then became an architect o Added elements like screens and grills borrowed from Japanese architecture to his designs Charles Mackintosh o Had some of the most farreaching effects through his architectural designs o Was influenced by Japanese interiors o Much of his work has been adapted for use by later architects o Has a strong overall geometric quality in his work which had a major influence on Art Deco designers Frank Lloyd Wright o Influenced by the Art Nouveau and Japanese designs Hector Guimard o Used metalwork to create floral motifs and lettering o His architecture is a true synthesis of line and space o Was considered the most imaginative of the French designers Victor Horta o Chose an element to dominate each entire design o The Hotel Tassel The dominant motif is the “whiplash arabesque” Used thin ironwork members which supported large areas of glass in a light manner Otto Wagner o Known for his simplicity and geometric order Antonio Gaudi o Created the most individualistic vision of Art Nouveau o His work has the quality of a natural phenomena o Later work showed both a lyricism and a sense of monumentality o Did a great deal of “free form” concrete work
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