ANT 304 - Week 11
ANT 304 - Week 11 ANT 304
Popular in Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Saturday November 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 11/07/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies The Ancient Maya Olmec Toltec Aztec are also cultures of this region 0 But just focusing on Aztec Ancient Maya inhabited five modern political countries 0 Mexico most of Yucatan region and southern ChiapasCampeche area 0 Guatemala borders Mexico 0 Belize Caribbean coast 0 El Salvador 0 Honduras We re talking about MesoAmerica middle America Mayas are still alive today 0 Don t think of Maya as collapsed civilization per say Two distinct environments 0 very humid rainforest type area Dense forest Abundant plant and animal life Most of all the Yucatan peninsula parts of Guatemala all of Belize Very rich ecologically Environment is very harsh When Mayans inhabited this region deforested about 95 of the jungle and built enormous cities 0 Pacific coast of southern parts of Mexico Guatemala El Salvador and down towards Honduras Region is much higher in elevation quot14000 ft Richly volcanic region Tons of active volcanoes Importance elevation higher and active volcanoes but Maya were great at using these resources The obsidian that we find all over the Maya area came from this region Obsidian used to make tools Lots of agriculture Lush low line trees Animals were exploited for food or precious resources 0 Jaguar and quetzal birds were very sacred 0 Toucan white tailed deer coatlmundi aka coati oscillated turkey tapir some type of rattlesnake scorpions spiders tarantula Plants 0 Mushrooms cacao avocado chile agave ceiba tree palms orchids 0 Used for food but also medicinalspiritual purposes Mesoamerican Triad o Consists of maize beans and squash 0 These three plants were cultivated and domesticated by Maya 0 Represent a complete protein 0 Most subsistence in Mesoamerica centers around these three plants 0 Corn was also a very sacred plant Ancient Maya chronology 0 DON T WORRY ABOUT SPECIFIC DATES o Archaic 9 PreClassic early middle late 9 Classic 9 LateTerminal Classic 9 PostClassic includes the Spanish arrival Archaic Period 0 Evidence of it throughout the Maya area 0 We have fluted points spear points used for hunting milling stones basic and used to grind grain I Ancient grain of the corn PreClassic Period 0 Guatemala city right in the city center 0 Origins of village life 0 Some pottery which is consistent with a giant round bowl known as tecomate bowls I Used as storage vessels 0 Also see figurines 0 One architectural feature that is from preclassic to classic area is a rounded platform structure Classic Period 0 Gets going around 250 AD and ends around 925 AD 0 Copan Honduras is a major site 0 These times show elaborate architecture of massive buildings extreme states competing qualities hieroglyphics large scale agriculture big population boom 0 Writing systemhieroglyphics used all throughout these major centers 0 Calendar system is also uniform throughout Mayan sites I Reigned in a bunch of citystates Mayans not necessarily always friendly with neighbor sites 0 O I Distinct languages 0 Ball game pops up I Coincides with movement of sun I Giant structure built as playing ground Staircase covered in hieroglyphs all the way to the top We see an extremely hierarchical society 00 O This site is very elite I Where kind and royal court lived PostClassic and Terminal Classic 0 This time period sees a lot of political stimuli 0 Have city states popping up all over the place and they re all fighting with each other 0 Huge drought occurs massive hurricane and volcano erupts o All the political and environmental struggles force people to move I Mass migration out of the classic sites intro highlands of Guatemala and lowlands of Yucatan I Major centers are abandoned o PostClassic vs Terminal Classic I Terminal is the end of the hiatus and when the Spanish show up I Outside influences environmental and others and when people scatter is postclassic Palenque 0 Southern Chiapas Mexico 0 Royal kind buried there 0 Ancient lowland city 0 City was powerful for about 400 yea rs 0 Among the dynasties is the Pacal in Mayan means shield Lord Pacal o Reigned for about 67 years 0 Had a massive temple built specifically for his burial chamber temple of inscriptions 0 Temple of inscriptions was built during his life time and took about 15 years complete 0 Burial place is deep below the ground and temple was on top 0 A secret staircase lead to funeral tomb and sarcophagus o The tomb has a which was common I Just put one brick on another in an angled manner to the top 0 Upon excavating tomb found artifacts made ofjade shells pottery 0 There were the remains of six individuals who were buried with him 0 Adorned with the jade mask jewelry etc Red is a very important color for the Maya
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