Structural Biology A332
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tarn Notetaker on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to A332 at Republic Polytechnic taught by Sun Guang Wen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Structural Biology in Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Republic Polytechnic.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
Formation of a polypeptide chain: Terminus: C terminus Each polypeptide chain starts on the right side by free COOH group of the last amino acid N terminus Each polypeptide chain starts on the left side by free amino group of the first amino acid enter in chain formation General colour code: Hydrogen → White Oxygen → Red Nitrogen → Blue Peptide: Amino acids join together to form peptide Chain >10 amino acids referred as polypeptide > 50 amino acids referred as protein Cause of Disease: Point mutation → Protein sequence change → structural change → functional change → disease Types of forces: Van der Waal’s interactions Temporary bond When two atoms are close to each other Larger surface area → stronger Individually → weak Structure → must be very close Strength: 0.4 4.0 kJ/mol Distance: 0.3 0.6 nm Hydrogen bonds Can occur in polar side chain amino acid except cysteine Carbonyl group and amide group can form hydrogen bond Strength: 5 30 kJ/mol Distance: 0.3 nm Ionic Interaction Only one charged side chain can form ionic bond Strength: 140 250 kJ/mol Distance: 0.25 nm Hydrophobic interaction Two nonpolar interact Strength: <40 kJ/mol Distance: varies Disulfide bond SS bond Strength: 266 kJ/mol Distance: 0.2 nm Peptide bond CN bond Covalent bond 10 fold stronger than hydrogen bond Strength: 305 kJ/mol Distance: 0.13 0.147 nm Protein Structures: Proteins are polymers constructed from the same set of twenty different amino acids. Primary It is the specific sequence of amino acids specified by the gene Secondary This is a picture of how beta sheets look like The structure portion to the protein begin to fold in a threedimensional formation Folds and coils of the protein are the result of hydrogen bombs that occur in regulat intervals There are two kinds of structure Alpha helix Beta pleated sheets Tertiary Formed by interactions between side chains of various amino acids Some proteins may be completed Quaternary The left picture is collagen and the right picture is haemoglobin Proteins that incorporate multiple polypeptide subunits 20 Types of amino acids: