Course Notes Week #7 Nov. 2nd-6th
Course Notes Week #7 Nov. 2nd-6th Comm 2331
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Hageman on Sunday November 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 2331 at Ohio State University taught by Erik Nisbet in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Strategic Communication Principles in Journalism and Mass Communications at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 11/08/15
COMM 2331 Course Notes Week #7 Nov. 2 - 6 th Chapter 11 Notes (pg. 375-401): Evaluation of Media: Television and Radio: Advantages of Television: - Creativity and Impact (sight and sound offer lifelike representations of products and services) - Coverage and Cost-Effectiveness - Captivity and Attention - Selectivity and Flexibility Disadvantages of Television: - Costs (expensive) - Lack of Selectivity (hard to target smaller markets) - Fleeting message - Clutter - Limited Viewer Attention o Zipping- when viewers fast-forward through commercials as they play back a previously recorded program o Zapping- changing channels to avoid commercials - Distrust and Negative Evaluation Television Network- assembles a series of affiliated local TV stations (affiliates) to which it supplies programming and services - Upfront market- buying period that occurs before the TV season begins - Scatter market- runs through the TV season Spot Advertising- commercials shown on local TV stations National Spot Advertising- non-network advertising done by a nation advertiser Local Advertising- airtime sold to local firms such as retailers, restaurants, banks, and auto dealers Station reps- individuals who act as sales reps for a number of local stations in dealings with national advertisers Syndicated Programs- shows that are sold or distributed on a station- by-station, market-by-market business Methods of Buying Time: - Sponsorship- an advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of the program as well as the advertising that appears within it - Participations- several advertisers buying commercial time or spots on a particular program - Spot Announcements- bought from local stations and generally appear during time periods adjacent to network programs (adjacencies) rather than within them Dayparts- specified segments of a broadcast day Cable Television: - Superstations- independent local stations that send their signals nationally via satellite to cable operators to make their programs available to subscribers - Interconnects- a number of cable systems and networks in a geographic area are joined for advertising purposes - Narrowcasting- reaching very specialized markets - Multiplexing- transmitting multiple channels from one network Television Households- a home with at least one operable TV or monitor with the ability to deliver video via traditional means of antenna, cable set-up-box, or satellite receiver and/or with a broadband connection Program Rating- % of TV households in the area that are tuned to a specific program during a specific time Ratings point- 1% of all the television households in a particular area tuned to a specific program Households Using Television- % of homes in a given area where TV is being watched during a specific time period Share of Audience- % of households using TV in a specified time period that are tuned to a specific program Designated Market Areas- non-overlapping areas used for planning, buying, and evaluating TV audiences and are generally a group of counties in which stations located in a metropolitan or central area achieve the largest audience share Commercial Ratings- measures of the average viewership of the commercials both live and up to three days after the ads are played back on a DVR Cross-Platform Campaign Ratings- measures the number of people who watch an ad only on TV, the number who view it online, and the overlap between the two Lecture Notes-Nov. 2 :nd Three Methods of Duration and Scheduling: - Continuity- continuous pattern - Flighting- intermittent periods of advertising and no advertising - Pulsing- continuous but certain periods of increased advertising Media vehicle- specific carrier Reach- number of different audience members exposed at least once in a time period Coverage- potential audience that might receive the message Frequency- number of times receiver is exposed to the media vehicle in a time period Advertisers are forced to make trade-offs between reach and frequency Gross Ratings Points= total number of people the audience buy will reach (reach*frequency) Target Ratings Points= number of people in the primary target audience the media buy will reach (target reach*frequency) Factors that increase frequency: - High usage - High competition - New brand - Image advertising - Varied messages - Amount of clutter Factors that decrease frequency: - High brand loyalty - High ability to process - Low usage - Simple, single messages - Uniqueness - Potential wear out - Advertising units (size, space, time) - Continuous scheduling - Fewer media - Level of attention - Repeat exposures Cost per thousand reached (CPM)= (cost of ad space/circulation)*1000 Cost per rating point (CPRP)= (cost of commercial time/program rating) TV advantages: - Mass coverage and high reach=cost effective - Captivity and attention gaining - Target selectivity and flexibility - High creativity and impact Disadvantages: - Fleeting - High absolute costs - Audience distrust - Message avoidance (zipping and zapping) - Increasing clutter - Not useful for small markets TV households- number of household with TV Program Rating- % of TV households turned into specific program during time period Households using TV- % of homes in area where TV is being watched during specifc time period Share of Audience- % of households using TV in specified time that are tuned to a specific program Chapter 12 Notes (pg. 436-450): Evaluation of Media: Newspapers: Types of newspapers: - Daily Newspapers - Weekly Newspapers - National Newspapers - Special- Audience Newspapers - Newspaper Supplements (include magazine type supplements) Types of newspaper advertising: - Display Advertising- uses illustrations, headlines, white space, and other visual devices in addition to the copy text (local and national (general)) - Classified Advertising- arranged under subheads according to the product, service, or offering being advertised - Special Ads and Inserts- government and financial reports and notices and public notices of changes in business and personal relationships (preprinted inserts) Advantages of Newspapers: - Market Penetration - Flexibility - Geographic selectivity - Reader involvement and acceptance - Services offered Limitations of Newspapers: - Poor reproduction - Short Life Span - Lack of selectivity City Zone- market area composed of the city where the paper is published and contiguous areas similar in character to the city Retail trading zone- market outside the city zone whose residents regularly trade with merchants within the city zone General advertising rates- display advertisers outside the newspapers designated market area and to any classification deemed by the publisher to be general in nature Local advertising rates- advertisers that conduct business or sell goods/services within the designated market area Flat rates- no discount for quantity of repeated space buys Open-rate structure- various discounts available Future of Newspapers: - Competition from other media - Circulation decreasing - Attracting and Retaining Readers - Online Delivery Lecture Notes- Nov. 4 : th Strategic Media Planning: Rating= (HH tuned to show/total US HH) Share= (HH tuned to show/ US HH using TV) Differences in Radio: - Limited communication and creative options - Less status and prestige - Lower costs to produce and purchase - Good for smaller markets - Higher receptivity, selectivity, and flexibility Magazine Advantages: - Segmentation and selectivity - High receptivity - High info content - Permanence - High quality reproduction Magazine Disadvantages: - Visual only - Long lead time - Limited frequency and reach - High competition - High clutter - Declining circulation Newspaper Advantages: - High penetration and flexibility - Geographic selectivity - High involvement/credibility/acceptance - Lower cost - Matching ads with editorial - Short lead times and timely - May be closely tied to sales promotions Newspaper disadvantages: - Low production quality - Short lifespan - Low attention getting - Selective reader exposure - Clutter - Declining circulation Chapter 13 Notes: Support Media: - Alternative media - Below-the-line media - Non-measured media - Non-traditional media Out-of-home Advertising: - Outdoor advertising (digital out-of-home media) - Alternative out-of-home media (aerial advertising, mobile billboards) - In-store media - Miscellaneous Outdoor Media - Transit Advertising (inside cards, outside posters, terminal posters) Promotional products marketing- the advertising or promotional medium or method that uses promotional products, such as ad specialties, premiums business gifts, awards, prizes, or commemoratives Yellow Pages Advertising- directional medium because the ads do not create awareness or demand for products or services Advertising in movie theaters Branded entertainment- blends marketing and entertainment through television, film, music talent, and technology - Product Placements - Product integration - Advertainment - Content sponsorship - Ad- supported video on demand Guerrilla Marketing Chapter 14 Notes: Direct Marketing: Direct Marketing- system of marketing by which organizations communicate directly with target customers to generate a response or transaction - Direct-response media Combining Direct Marketing with: - Advertising - Public Relations - Personal Selling - Sales Promotion - Support Media Direct Marketing Strategies: - Direct Mail - Catalogs - E-mail - Broadcast Media - TV spots - Infomercials - Home Shopping - Print Media - Telemarketing Direct Selling: 1) Repetitive person-to-person selling 2) Non-repetitive person-to-person selling 3) Party plans Cost per order- advertisers can evaluate the relative effectiveness of an ad in only a few minutes based on the number of calls generated Customer Lifetime Value- assists marketers in determining the dollar value associated with a long-term relationship with a customer thus evaluating his/her worth Lecture Notes- Nov. 6 : th Support media- uses variety of non-traditional channels to deliver communications and to promote products and services - Outdoor Advertising (aerial advertising) - In-store media (store leaflets, shopping cart signage, etc) - Transit advertising (inside cards, outside posters, terminal posters) - Advertising in movie theaters Branded Entertainment- blends marketing and entertainment through TV, film, music talent, and technology Direct Marketing: one step approach (medium is used directly to obtain an order) or two-step approach (uses more than one medium) - Advertising - Public Relations - Support media - Personal selling - Sales promotion RFM scoring- R-recency, M-monetary transactions, and F-frequency Cost per order- evaluates the relative effectiveness of an ad based on the number of calls generated Customer Lifetime Value (CLTV)- determines the dollar value associate with a long-term relationship with a costumer
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